A comparative evaluation of the dietary effect between capric acid (C10:0)- containing soyphospholipids and soyphospholipids without capric acid on the lipid profile of serum of rats when ingested at 5% or 10% level by weight in soybean oil was made. Rats were taken in five groups. One group was fed 20% soybean oil. Two groups received soybean oil containing 5% and 10% soyphospholipids by weight, respectively. Other two groups were fed soybean oil containing 5% and 10% capric acid containing soyphospholipids by weight, respectively. The other dietary components remained same for all the groups. The feeding was done for 4 weeks. At the end of feeding period there was no althrough significant change in weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio (FER). No significant change was observed in serum lipid profiles between the rats fed soybean oil and soybean oil with 5% or 10% soyphospholipids. There was significant decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level in the rats fed soybean oil blended with capric acid containing soyphospholipids at 5% level. The level of TC, triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly when the rats were fed capric acid containing soyphospholipids at 10% level. There is overall significant change in TC, TG, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol. The possible mechanism behind the reduction of serum lipid profile may be the reduction of interfacial tension of phospholipids could affect serum lipid profiles due to enhanced or much greater extent of emulsification of the both polar and nonpolar lipid components and their transfer from the intestine to the bile pathway.
A novel polymerizable anionic gemini surfactant has been synthesized and the physicochemical properties in aqueous solution have been studied with a combination of various analytical techniques. The surfactant (PA12-2-12) contains two anionic monomeric parts linked with an ethylene spacer and polymerizable methacryloxy groups covalently bound to the terminal of the hydrocarbon chains. The static surface tension data suggest that, when compared with a conventional (non-polymerizable) anionic gemini surfactant (A12-2-12), (i) the interfacial adsorption of PA12-2-12 occurs more effectively from low surfactant concentrations, whereas (ii) a weak interaction of the polymerizable terminal groups with water molecules (and/or the steric hindrance of the polymerizable groups) plays a significant role in the subsequent molecular packing at the air/aqueous solution interface. The latter effect (as well as the electrostatic repulsion between the anionic headgroups) results in a relatively less packed monolayer film, overcoming the strong intermolecular attractive interaction that is frequently seen for gemini surfactant systems. In the region of low added electrolyte concentrations, PA12-2-12 spontaneously forms spherical micelles in aqueous solution, which is confirmed with the Corrin-Harkins analysis (critical micelle concentration (cmc) vs. total counter-ion concentration) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The spherical micelles have been polymerized under UV light irradiation in the absence of added electrolytes. Cryo-TEM measurements confirm that no significant change in the original micelle morphology occurs during the polymerization. This offers a possibility that the polymerizable anionic gemini surfactant should be useful as nano-structural organic templates and/or interfacial stabilizers in aqueous solution.
Visualization of endogenous molecules in small experimental animals is very important in order to investigate the localization of specific molecules. Conventional imaging techniques are not suitable for simultaneous visualization of endogenous molecules. We recently developed a new imaging method-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF). In this study, we applied IMS using MALDI-QIT-TOF to visualize the metabolites in medaka (Oryzias latipes) sections and determined the spatial distribution of metabolites including lipids.
Intramolecular etherification of 1,3-diols was investigated using iodine as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The reaction proceeded to completion in a heterogeneous system. Five-membered cyclic ethers were obtained by intramolecular cyclization of 1,3-diols with dehydration. A propella ether (11-oxatricyclo[4.4.3.01,6]tridecane) was conveniently synthesized from a 1,3-diol (6-(2-hydroxyethyl)spiro[4.5]decan-6-ol) in 86% yield with carbon skeleton rearrangement under the following conditions: a temperature of 60°C, a molar ratio of 1,3-diol:iodine = 1:0.2, and a time period of 3 h. Bicyclic ethers were also obtained from the corresponding 1,3-diols, but spiro ethers were obtained in lower yield. Terpenic cyclic ethers were efficiently synthesized from the corresponding 1,3-diols, derived from (+)-camphor and (-)-fenchone. In the case of etherification with a mechanism of carbon skeleton rearrangement, the yield of the solvent-free reaction was as high as that of the corresponding reaction in solution. Etherification reactions with carbon skeleton rearrangement proceeded more smoothly than those with hydride shift.
Four types of phytoncide solutions (A-Type, AB-Type, D-Type and G-Type) was evaluated for reduction of cell damage induced by oxidative stress, ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), hydroxyperoxide (H2O2) and t-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BHP); stimulation of collagen synthesis against UVA irradiation; and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity induced by UVA in human normal dermal fibroblasts and human reconstituted skin model. The A-Type, AB-Type, D-Type and G-Type of phytoncide solutions pretreatment resulted in significant protection against cell damage induced by UVB, UVA, H2O2 and t-BHP. The amount of type I collagen following UVA irradiation was increased by treatment with phytoncide solutions in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, phytoncide solutions also suppressed the excess MMP-1 irradiated UVA in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of G-type solution were superior to those of other types solutions.
The rabbit corneal epithelium model (RCE model) was developed as a three-dimensional in vitro model to replace animal testing for the assessment of eye tolerance. In the model, a stratified culture of rabbit corneal epithelial cells is grown at the air-liquid interface on a collagen gel acting as a parabasal membrane. Histological cross-sections show that the structure of RCE model closely parallels that of the rabbit corneal epithelium. The lauryl derivatives, such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyoxyethylene (9) lauryl ether (PLE), sodium polyoxyethylene (2) lauryl ether sulfate (SPLE), mono glyceryl laurate (MGL), and sodium N-lauroyl-L-glutaminate (SLG), and polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives, polyoxyethylene (9) lauryl ether (PLE), polyoxyethylene (10) cetyl ether (PCE), polyoxyethylene (10) stearyl ether (PSE), polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (POE), and polyoxyethylene (10) behenyl ether (PBE), were evaluated for in vitro eye irritation potential using the RCE model by the measurement of viability with MTT assay. SLS, PLE, SPLE, MGL, and SLG inhibited 90.3%, 69.8%, 79.7%, 45.8%, and 32.7% of the viability at a concentration of 0.5%. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values of SLS, PLE, SPLE, MGL, and SLG were 0.086%, 0.205%, 0.133%, 0.627%, and 0.934%, respectively. These results indicated that a functional group at the end of lauryl chain is an important factor for inhibiting the viability using the RCE model. The polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives had distinctly different the viability potencies according to their alkyl patterns. PLE inhibited the viability greater than other polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives. Therefore, the lauryl chain of PLE is an important factor for inhibiting the viability on the RCE model.
In this study the chemical composition, cholinesterase inhibitory property and anti-inflammatory activity of S. leriifolia Benth. essential oil was evaluated for the first time. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of camphor (10.5%), 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphene (6.2%) and α-pinene (4.7%) as main constituents. S. leriifolia oil exhibited a promising antioxidant activity by DPPH assay with an IC50 2.26 μL/mL. Interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity was also found with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.29 μL/mL for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Moreover, this oil inhibited LPS-induced NO production with an IC50 value of 165 μg/mL. The absence of cytotoxicity at 1000 μg/mL was evaluated by MTT assay in 142BR cells.