Fatty hydrazides (FH) have been successfully synthesized from palm oils by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The synthesis was carried out by treating the oils with hydrazine hydrate at neutral pH using an immobilized lipase, Lipozyme as the catalyst. The percentages of conversion of RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) palm oil (PO), RBD palm olein (POn), RBD palm stearin (PS) and RBD palm kernel olein (PKOn) into their fatty hydrazides are 95, 97, 97 and 99, respectively.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was ∼ 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was ∼ 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.
Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66±0.05% (C14:0), 43.39±0.39% (C16:0), 0.14±0.06% (C16:1), 3.90±0.11% (C18:0), 40.95±0.23% (C18:1), 9.68±0.21% (C18:2), 0.16±0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31±0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm oil; 0.23±0.04% (C12:0), 1.02±0.04% (C14:0), 39.66±0.19% (C16:0), 0.18±0.07% (C16:1), 3.81±0.04% (C18:0), 44.01±0.08% (C18:1), 10.73±0.08% (C18:2), 0.20±0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34±0.04% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14±0.05% (C14:0), 49.42±0.25% (C16:0), 0.16±0.08% (C16:1), 4.15±0.10% (C18:0), 36.14±0.77% (C18:1), 7.95±0.29% (C18:2), 0.11±0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30±0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm stearin.
Comparison of the hydrogen bonding of racemic RS-1-monostearoylglycerol and chiral S-1-monostearoylglycerol in benzene was carried out through the NMR measurement. In addition, the concentration dependence of a chirality of S-1-monostearoylglycerol in hexane was studied though UV and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. The chemical shifts of OH protons of the S- and RS-1- monostearoylglycerols indicated that the hydrogen bonding between the R- and S-form molecules of RS-1-monostearoylglycerol is stronger than that between the S- and S-form molecules of S-1-monostearoylglycerol in the low concentration region and that the difference in the strength of hydrogen-bonding between them becomes small in the high concentration region. The chirality of the S-1-monostearoyglycerol in hexane decreased with increasing its concentration. This suggests that the association of chiral S-1-monoacylglycerol arising from its increasing concentration reduces the chirality of S-1-monostearoylglycerol.
Fatty acids are converted into energy via beta-oxidation. Although almost all natural occurring fatty acids are even-numbered, there are some odd-numbered fatty acids too. The details of the metabolism rate of odd-numbered fatty acids, however, are not clear. In the present study, we simultaneously administered a triacylglycerol containing four types of labeled even-numbered (palmitic acid and stearic acid) and odd-numbered (pentadecanoic acid and heptadecanoic acid) fatty acids to mice to compare the rates of their metabolism. The rates of metabolism were evaluated based on the accumulation of the labeled fatty acids in the small intestine epithelium, liver, and epididymal fat. Odd-numbered fatty acids accumulated mainly in the epididymal fat. In contrast, there was no accumulation of even-numbered fatty acids observed in the small intestine epithelium, liver, or epididymal fat. These results suggest that odd-numbered fatty acids might not be favorable substrates for beta-oxidation-related enzymes.
A novel series of neutral and cationic dimeric surfactants were prepared involving ketalization reaction, Williamson etherification, and regioselective oxirane ring opening with primary and tertiary alkyl amines. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γCMC), surface excess concentration (Γ), and area per molecule at the interface (A) were determined and values indicate that the cationic series is characterized by good surface-active and self-aggregation properties. For the first time, we reported the antimicrobial activities against representative bacteria and fungi for dimeric compounds. The antimicrobial activity was found to be dependent on the target microorganism (Gram-positive bacteria > fungi > Gram-negative bacteria), as well as both the neutral or ionic nature (cationic > neutral) and alkyl chain length (di-C12 > di-C18 > di-C8) of the compounds. The cationic di-C12 derivative was found to have equipotent activity to that of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as standard.
Free plant sterols cannot be dissolved in oil or water. Using free plant sterols and egg yolks, we developed a plant sterol-egg yolk lipoprotein complex (PSY) that can be dispersed in water and considered suitable for use in processed foods. The cholesterol-lowering activity of PSY was equal to that of free plant sterols and plant sterol esters. Consumption of a freeze-dried PSY-containing omelet reduced serum and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The results suggest that PSY has cholesterol-lowering activity equivalent to that of free plant sterols and plant sterol esters. Moreover, the cholesterol-lowering activity of PSY was maintained in processed foods.