In order to explore the scientific basis for the application of oil bodies (OBs) from different peanut varieties in food, the effect of NaCl (0–100 mM), thermal processing (25–45°C, 1 h) and pH (3.0, 7.4, and 9.0) on their zeta potentials was analyzed in this study. The zeta potentials of OB suspensions (in 10 mM phosphate buffer) prepared from five peanut varieties in different salt concentrations (0–100 mM) were positive at pH 3.0, while they remained negative at pH 7.4 and 9.0. The absolute values of zeta potentials were over 20 mV at a lower salt concentration (< 10 mM NaCl) at pH 3.0 and 7.4. Particularly, the values of zeta potentials of Yuhua27 and Yuhua9830 were as high as 40 mV in the absence of NaCl at pH 7.4. The OBs exhibited diverse change trends between the five peanut varieties in the temperatures from 25 to 45°C (0 mM NaCl, pH 7.4). The OBs from Yuhua9830 exhibited the best thermal adaptability at the different temperatures tested than the other four peanut varieties. These outcomes suggested that OBs extracted from different varieties possess diverse properties and may provide a new insight into choosing a suitable peanut variety for the food industry.
In this study, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of cold pressed olive oils belonged to Ayvalık, Gemlik, Domat, Çilli, Çöpaşı and Söbüaşı varieties were determined. The fatty acid composition of the olive oils showed differences depending on the olive variety. The major fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were found as 62.49-68.53%; 8.30-17.93%; 14.39-19.47%, respectively. The highest oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid contents were determined in the varieties of Çilli (68.53%), Söbüaşı (17.93%) and Gemlik (19.47%), respectively. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic fatty acids of the local varieties such as Çilli, Çöpaşı, Söbüaşı were similar to those of Ayvalık and Gemlik varieties. The most abundant isomer of tocopherol in olive oils was α-tocopherol (18.22-36.02 mg/100g). The highest α- and γ- tocopherols were observed in olive oils of Söbüaşı variety (36.02 mg/100g) and Gemlik variety (8.12 mg/100g), respectively. It is concluded that the olive variety is an important factor on the fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of the olive oil.
The solubility of H2 in electrolytes, H2 reaction consumption and the conductivity of electrolytes under different pressures in an electrochemical hydrogenation reactor were studied. It was found that with an increase in H2 pressure, H2 was electrolyzed at the anode, accompanied by the generation of H+. The solubility of H2 in the electrolytes and the conductivity of the electrolytes also increased. At first, the reaction consumption increased, followed by a tendency to be stable at 3 MPa. Therefore, the electrochemical hydrogenation of soybean oil was carried out at a H2 pressure of 3 MPa. When the current was 120 mA, the temperature was 50°C, the agitation speed was 300 rpm, and the time was 7.5 h, the IV of hydrogenated soybean oil was 99.6 g I2/100 g oil, and the TFA content of the oil was 4.3%.
The present work deals/ reveals with the effect of purslane leaves extract on the stability of soybean oil during heating and the acceptability of oil after preparation of poori (an Indian fried bread) by frying and its sensory evaluation. The ethanolic purslane leaves extract was blended with soybean oil at three different concentrations such as, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm (T1, T2 and T3) and compared with control. The sample added with 100 ppm TBHQ was used as a positive control. Assessment of antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of purslane leaves was carried out by the estimation of total phenolic content, loss of β-carotene and antioxidant activity. The heating (173±2°C for 24 h; 8 h heating cycles per day) performance of soybean oil incorporated with purslane leaves extract was evaluated in terms of peroxide value, free fatty acid, total polar material and fatty acid composition. The thermal stability of the oils was evaluated using differential scanning calorimeter. The poori was prepared to check the acceptability of the oil. Results suggest that leaves extract of purslane (1500 ppm) may be used for obtaining reasonable thermal stability of soybean oil with acceptable sensory characteristics of the product. Although TBHQ showed almost similar thermal stability with leaves extract of purslane (1500 ppm), natural anti-oxidant is more preferred over synthetic anti-oxidant.
Lipase-catalyzed production of palm esters was performed via alcoholysis of palm oil and oleyl alcohol in solvent and solvent-free systems using a 2 L stirred tank reactor (STR). Two immobilized lipases were tested and Lipozyme RM IM exhibited superior performance in both reaction systems. Reusability studies of the enzymes in a solvent-free system also demonstrated the high stability of Lipozyme RM IM as shown by its ability to yield more than 70% palm esters with up to 19 cycles of reusing the same enzymes. Modification of the enzyme washing process improved the stability of Lipozyme TL IM in a solvent system as demonstrated by maintaining 65% yield after 5 times of repeated enzyme use. The scale up process for both lipases was conducted in the presence of solvents by using the impeller tip speed approach. Lipozyme RM IM–catalyzed reaction in a 15 L STR produced 85.7% yield and there was a significant drop to 60.7% in the 300 L STR, whereas Lipozyme TL IM had a lower yield (65%) when the reaction volume was increased to 15 L. The low yields could be due to the accumulation of enzymes at the bottom of the vessel. Purification of palm esters via solvent-solvent extraction revealed that more than 90% of oleyl alcohol was extracted after the third extraction cycle at 150 rpm impeller speed with reduced palm esters: ethanol ratio (v/v) from 1:4 to 1:3.
The physiological effects of dietary β-conglycinin (β-CON), one of the major components of soy protein (SOY), were examined in an obese animal model. Prior studies show that β-CON intake decreases plasma triglycerides and visceral adipose tissue weight, and increases plasma adiponectin in rodents. Since plasma adiponectin is known to affect both lipid and glucose metabolism, feeding a diet containing β-CON could modulate insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we examined the effects of dietary β-CON on insulin sensitivity and blood glucose levels, as well as lipid metabolism in obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (pre-symptomatic stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus). Male OLETF rats (6 weeks old) were fed diets containing 20% protein such as casein (CAS), CAS replaced with soy protein (SOY), or β-CON at a proportion of 50% for 13 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured every 3 weeks, and an insulin tolerance test (ITT; 0.75 IU/kg body weight) was conducted at week 12. During the feeding period, fasting blood glucose was comparable among the groups. Insulin sensitivity measured by the ITT revealed that the SOY and β-CON diets decreased blood glucose levels at 30 min after intraperitoneal insulin injection (vs. CAS diet). In addition, the β-CON diet increased plasma adiponectin concentrations, hepatic gene expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2, and muscle gene expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and IRS1, and with a decrease in plasma insulin concentration. Finally, the β-CON diet decreased the mesenteric adipose tissue weight and liver triglyceride concentration compared to the CAS diet. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of dietary β-CON are mediated by increasing plasma adiponectin to increase insulin sensitivity and influence the hepatic lipid metabolism in obese OLETF rats.
The crude methanolic and hexane extracts of non-cooked, steamed and roasted from three Job's Tears cultivars were prepared and further semi-purified by liquid-liquid extraction techniques and silica gel column. The six single semi-purified extracts (F1-F6) were combined as nine cocktails (CT1, CT6, CT8, CT13, CT14, CT21, CT24, CT25 and CT31) according to the IC50 values from the preliminary study and investigated for anti-proliferative and apoptotic induction on mouth cancer cell line (KB) and immunostimulating as well as antioxidative activities. The highest anti-proliferative activity was observed in CT13 showing the IC50 value of 0.53±0.45 µg/mL which was higher than 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin of 20.34 and 1.60 times, respectively. CT1 which was the combination of F1-F6 and CT13 which was the combination of F4-F6 exhibited significant strong synergistic activity with the combination index value (CI) of 0.28. CT1 at 200 µg/mL showed the highest percentages of apoptotic cells (40.65±10.97%) with no necrotic cells, but lower than cisplatin (100 µg/mL) of 2.18 times. CT14 gave the highest immunostimulating activity with the phagocytosis percentage of 13.0±1.7%, but lower than lipopolysaccharide of 1.08 times. CT31 gave the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities with the SC50 and MC50 values of 0.73±0.07 and 1.99±0.24 µg/mL, but lower than ascorbic acid and EDTA of 18.25 and 4.33 times, respectively. The linoleic acid contents related to anti-cancer activity were also examined by HPLC. This study has demonstrated that CT1 composing of F1-F6 at the percentage ratio of 0.71:2.06:81.38: 8.47:4.92:2.46 was the potential cocktails of the semi-purified extracts from the Job’s Tears which can be further developed as a novel active compound for oral cancer treatment.
The usefulness of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles as a boron compound carrier for boron neutron capture therapy has been recently reported. In this study, chitosan-modified poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared to better facilitate the delivery of boron to the tumor. Chitosan hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride (CS), which can easily be modified for compatibility with PLGA nanoparticles, was used as chitosan. o-Carborane-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (bare nanoparticles) with a mean volume diameter of 111.4 ± 30.1 nm, and o-Carborane-loaded PLGA nanoparticles coated with CS (CS-coated nanoparticles) with a mean volume diameter of 113.6 ± 32.5 nm were prepared via an emulsion solvent evaporation method. Electrophoretic mobility was measured to calculate the particle surface charge number density of these particles; particle surface charge number densities of -1.91 mM and 20.8 mM were obtained for the bare and CS-coated nanoparticles, respectively. This result indicates that the particle surface was fully covered with CS. In vitro cellular uptake tests were carried out by using B16 melanoma cells. From the results of observation via confocal laser scanning microscopy, it was revealed that CS-coated nanoparticles existed around the cell nucleus, and were localized in the cytoplasm. Cellular uptakes of bare and CS-coated nanoparticles were quantitatively assessed by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting; the mean fluorescence intensity of CS-coated nanoparticles was three times higher than that of bare nanoparticles. The number of boron atoms in B16 melanoma cells was also investigated. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy revealed that the number of boron atoms per cell of CS-coated nanoparticles was 1.8 times higher than that of bare nanoparticles. Based on these findings, we consider CS-coated nanoparticles to be suitable for boron neutron capture therapy.
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is useful for the analysis of biological samples such as serum. Free induction decays (FIDs) are NMR signals that follow a radio-frequency pulse applied at the resonance frequency. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is a basic method for time-frequency analyses. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the STFT of FIDs enables the sensitive detection of changes and differences in serum properties. FIDs were obtained from serum collected from young, healthy, male volunteers ≤ 40 years of age and seniors ≥ 65 years of age. Temporal changes in the instantaneous amplitudes for the time-domain analysis, fast Fourier transform for frequency-domain analysis, and STFT were applied to the FIDs. The STFT-based spectrogram represented the complex frequency components that changed dynamically over time, indicating that the spectrogram enabled the visualization of the features of an FID. Furthermore, the results of a partial least-squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the STFT was superior to the other two methods for discriminating between serum from younger and older subjects. In conclusion, the STFT of FIDs obtained from proton NMR measurements was useful for evaluating similarities and dissimilarities in the FIDs obtained from serum samples.
Long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs) have shown beneficial health effects in previous studies. They occur as mixtures of positional isomers (PIs) in food. The functionalities of LC-MUFA PIs have not been studied extensively. Common LC-MUFA PIs, namely cis-octadecenoic acid (c-18:1), cis-eicosenoic acid (c-20:1), and cis-docosenoic acid (c-22:1), were screened based on their effects on lipid accumulation. We selected nine fatty acids (FAs) to assess their effects on cellular lipid metabolism using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Lipid accumulation was found to be higher in cells treated with LC-MUFAs than in the non-treated cells. When comparing the influence of chain length of LC-MUFAs, TG levels tended to be higher in cells treated with c-22:1 group than that of the c18:1 and c-20:1 groups. Among the c-22:1 group, c9-22:1 treatment showed higher lipid accumulation, and was accompanied with elevated expression of transcription factors related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis, such as PPARγ and C/EBPα, and SREBP-1, respectively. In contrast, the effects of c-20:1 FAs were less pronounced than those of c-18:1 and c-22:1. Levels of accumulated lipid in cells treated with c15-20:1 were the same as in non-treated control. PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 were expressed at lower levels with c15-20:1 FA. Furthermore, mRNA levels of SCD-1 and FAS were lowered more by c15- and c11-20:1 than by other MUFAs. These results revealed that differences in the effects of LC-MUFAs on lipid metabolism depend on their chain lengths and on the position of the double bond.