Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals in aronia fruits suppress visceral fat accumulation and hyperglycemia by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity and/or intestinal lipid absorption.
The recovery of short-chain fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat (MF) is improved when the analysis of the FA composition of MF by gas chromatography (GC) is conducted with the propyl or butyl ester derivatives, instead of the methyl esters. However, this approach complicates the detection of minor FAs, such as the minor positional isomers of 16:1, which represent <0.2% of the total content. In addition, the standards of these minor esters are not commercially available. In this study, with the aim to identify minor FAs, the fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) of MF were fractionated by Ag-ion solid phase extraction (Ag+-SPE) and analyzed by GC using a DB-23 capillary column. FAPEs were successfully fractionated mainly according to the degree of unsaturation by adjusting the elution conditions of the Ag+-SPE, and the minor FAPEs were easily determined without the aid of standard compounds. For example, by comparison of the GC profile of the saturated Ag+-SPE fraction with that of the original MF, minor FAs, such as iso-, anteiso-, and saturated FAs of 15:0 and 17:0, were expected to be eluted in this order. In addition, 16:1 propyl ester was co-eluted with iso 17:0 propyl ester under the GC conditions used in this study, as confirmed by the detection of the corresponding molecular ions (296 and 312, respectively) by GC-MS. Moreover, 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid was found to elute between 18:3 and 20:0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that the peak observed before that of cis-12:1 corresponds to trans-12:1. In conclusion, Ag+-SPE fractionation of FAPEs contributed to the identification of minor FAs in MF without the use of standard compounds.
Comparative frying studies on the processing of extruded product were conducted under intermittent and continuous frying conditions using two separate frying systems i.e batch and pilot scale continuous fryers, respectively. Thermal resistance of palm olein were assessed for a total of 5 days of frying operation at 155°C – the unconventional frying temperature gave the product moisture content of 3% after intermittent and continuous frying for 2.5 min and 2 min, respectively. The formation of free fatty acid in palm olein in the case of intermittent frying was more than 2-fold higher compared to its counterpart (0.66%). Smoke point inversely evolved with oil acidity: the value dropped progressively from 215 to 177°C and from 219 to 188°C when extruded product was intermittently and continuously fried, respectively. In the light of induction period, repeated frying exhibited a gradual decrease in the value after 5 days of frying (12.2 h). Interestingly, continuous frying gave somewhat similar induction period, as demonstrated by fresh palm olein, across frying time. Frying at lower temperature, to some extent, provides opportunity for palm olein to retain 74% of its initial vitamin E during continuous frying. This benefit, however, is somehow denied when extruded product was processed under intermittent frying conditions – only 27% of vitamin E was remained at the end of frying session. Regardless of frying protocols, transient in polar compounds was minimal and hence comparable. The colour in the case of continuous frying appeared to be darker due to higher degree of oil utilisation for frying. The data obtained will provide useful information for food processors on how palm olein behaves when frying is undertaken under different frying protocols.
The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.
The present study attempts to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of the isolated lipid extracts of three-spot seahorse which is rare marine bony fish. Petroleum ether (PE) extract was obtained from systematic solvent extraction after reflux extraction with 95% ethanol. FrIV was collected after silica gel column chromatography, and neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), phospholipids (PL) were separated from FrIV. Basic compositions were detected and analyzed via thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Anti-inflammatory activities of total lipids (TL), isolated NL, GL, and PL were detected by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine monocyte macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The results revealed that lipids of seahorse showed a positive correlation with the in vitro suppression of the release of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α potently in a dose dependent manner, and showed cell compatibility. Among the fractions, GL (50 μg/mL) showed the highest capacity to attenuate the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines which was comparable to that of the positive drug dexamethasone (DX) (20 μg/mL). Collectively, our findings indicated that the lipids from seahorse may be effective in the management of inflammation.
Castor oil, a non-edible oil containing hydroxyl fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (89.3 %) was chemically modified employing a two step procedure. The first step involved acylation (C2-C6 alkanoic anhydrides) of -OH functionality employing a green catalyst, Kieselguhr-G and solvent free medium. The catalyst after reaction was filtered and reused several times without loss in activity. The second step is esterification of acylated castor fatty acids with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE) to obtain 16 novel base stocks. The base stocks when evaluated for different lubricant properties have shown very low pour points (–30 to –45°C) and broad viscosity ranges 20.27 cSt to 370.73 cSt, higher viscosity indices (144-171), good thermal and oxidative stabilities, and high weld load capacities suitable for multi-range industrial applications such as hydraulic fluids, metal working fluids, gear oil, forging and aviation applications. The study revealed that acylated branched mono- and polyol esters rich in monounsaturation is desirable for developing low pour point base stocks.
Propyl caffeate was synthesized to produce lipophilic antioxidant, which used caffeic acid and propanol as starting materials, acidic ionic liquid as catalyst. The highest yield of propyl caffeate (98.7±0.8%) have been achieved under the optimum as follows: 1-butylsulfonic-3-methylimidazolium tosylate showed the best catalytic performance, molar ratio of caffeic acid to propanol was 1:20, reaction temperature was 90°C and the amount of acidic ionic liquid was 40%. The relationship between temperature and the forward rate constant gave the activation energy of 33.6 kJ mol–1, which indicated that acidic ionic liquid possesses high catalytic activity in the synthesis of PC. And the activity of acidic ionic liquid was not inhibited by the water produced during the esterification process. More importantly, this reaction system can even proceed smoothly when initial water content was 5%.
Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be β-pinene (23.39%), β-caryophyllene (16.43%), α-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 μg/adult and LC50 = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 67.46 μg/cm2). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm2 against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm2 against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.
Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material.
The effects of Aster scaber seed oil (ASO) on lipid profiles were studied in rats and hamsters. ASO contained considerable amounts of Δ3t-16:1 (11.4%), Δ3t, 9c-18:2 (4.6%), and Δ3t, 9c, 12c-18:3 (11.3%). Young rats and hamsters were fed diets containing ASO, soybean oil (SBO), or olive oil (OLO) as fat sources for 4 weeks in separate experiments with or without cholesterol. In the rat study, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol among the groups. The serum but not liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly lower in the ASO-fed group than it was in the other groups. The biochemical and growth parameters revealed no significant biological damages in the ASO-fed animals. In the hamster study, dietary cholesterol-dependent effects were evident in the serum lipids profiles, whereas the fat-induced effect was only observed in the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-/HDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, fat- and cholesterol-induced effects were evident in the ratio of serum LDL-/HDL-cholesterol. Significant interactions between dietary fat and cholesterol were observed as evident from the concentration of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol, as well as the activity of serum cholesterol ester transfer protein. These results suggest that dietary ASO containing trans-Δ3 fatty acids appeared to improve the serum LDL-/HDL-cholesterol ratio more than the SBO did, especially when hamsters were simultaneously fed cholesterol-supplemented diet.
Two sample preparation methods, namely hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), have been used to investigate the essential oils of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Symplocarpus foetidus, a plant with a characteristic odor, by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Characteristic aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). From the HD method, the main compounds in the oil were found to be p-vinyl-guaiacol (15.5%), 2-pentyl-furan (13.4%), and (Z)-ligustilide (9.5%). From the SAFE method, the main compounds were 2-butoxy-ethanol (49.6%), ethyl-pentanoate (4.5%), and mesitylene (4.0%). In HD oil, the most intense aroma-active compounds were 2-pentyl-furan (flavor dilution factor (FD) = 32, odor activity value (OAV) = 57), p-vinyl-guaiacol (FD = 16, OAV = 41), and dimethyl disulfide (FD = 16, OAV = 41). In SAFE oil, the main aroma-active compounds were 2-butoxy ethanol (FD = 32, OAV = 16), and 2-methoxy thiazole (FD = 32, OAV = 25).