As our survey found that some commercial standard diets for laboratory animals contained oil with chemical properties of highly deteriorated oil, their influence should be checked on animals especially of very young age. Three-week old weanling Wistar rats were fed a commercial standard diet (commercial standard diet group) or AIN93G (AIN93G group), defined diet, for 7 weeks. Then both groups were fed AIN93G for 12 weeks. As a result, all the rats grew normally without diarrhea, seborrhea, dermatitis, or excessive hair loss through the feeding period and there was no significant difference in body weight increase, feed ingestion amounts and organ weights. But fecal excretion was high at 10 weeks of age when the diet was switched from the commercial standard diet to AIN93G. Although serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanin aminotransferase (ALT) of the commercial standard diet group were not statistically higher than those of the AIN93G group, two rats out of 8 in the former group showed dark-red patches on the liver surface, and necrosis in histological analysis. In addition, slight fatty degeneration of all the liver, and swelling tubuler epithelium of kidneys were also found in the group. Serum levels of triacylglycerol (TG), glucose (GLC) and total cholesterol (T-CHO) were high, and free fatty acids (NEFA), low in the commercial standard diet group in good accordance with our previous result from the study on ingestion of deteriorated oil. In conclusion, product specifications of oil in commercial standard diets should be laid down to pursue a reliable animal experimentation.
Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28°C) and elevated (37 °C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures.
The analysis or preparative isolation of a specimen by a packed column gas chromatograph is affected by the kind and amount (concentration) of the liquid phase coated on the stationary phase. In particular, compounds having the same or similar molecular weight and similar functional groups are largely affected. Methyl oleate, which is a typical component of fats and oils, produces hydroperoxide by air oxidation as a first step. After that, various oxygenated compounds with a carbon number of 19 are produced. In this study, the effect of the concentration of ethylene glycol succinate polyester (EGS) as the liquid phase was examined for these compounds. The retention time of the hydroxides increased with an increase in the EGS concentration. The effect of the EGS concentration on the retention time decreased when these compounds were trimethyl silylated (TMS). The retention time of epoxides and oxo compounds increased with an increase in the EGS concentration independently of trimethyl silylation. Correction values were required for all quantitation.
N,N′-Carbonyl difatty amides (CDFAs) have been synthesized from palm oil using sodium ethoxide as catalyst. Ethyl fatty esters (EFEs) were produced as a by-product as well as glycerol. The synthesis was carried out by reflux palm oil and urea in presence of ethanol. In this process, palm oil gave 79% pure CDFAs after 8 hours and molar ratio of urea to palm oil was 6.2: 1 at 78°C. Both CDFAs and EFEs have been characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique.
Sphingomyelin is rarely found in lower animals, while sphingophospholipid is a characteristic of higher animals. In this study, sphingomyelin was first isolated and characterized from ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ascidian sphingomyelin was prepared using ion exchange (QAE-Sphadex-A25) and silicic acid (Florisil and Iatrobeads) column chromatographies. The chemical structure was characterized by fatty acid analysis, sphingoid analysis, hydrogen fluoride degradation, acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, infrared analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ceramide moieties of C. intestinalis sphingomyelin consisted primarily of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 fatty acids and d18:2 sphingadiene. Furthermore, sphingomyelins were isolated and characterized from 3 other ascidians, Halocynthia roretzi, Halocynthia aurantium, and Styela clava using the same methods. Comparative analysis of the sphingomyelin structures in 4 ascidian species-C. intestinalis (Enterogona) and H. roretzi, H. aurantium, and S. clava (Pleurogona)-revealed that the major fatty acid composition of the ceramides was similar, and that they differed in minor components.
3-Carbamoyl-2-isoxazolines, prepared by cycloaddition of functionalized nitrile oxide, serve as masked 3-unsubstituted isoxazolines to afford 2-isoxazoline-3-carboxylic acid, β-cyanoalcohol, α,β-unsaturated nitrile, and α,β-unsaturated amide upon heating in the alkaline solution. The present reaction is also applicable to synthesis of 3,4-difunctionalized isoxazoles and β-hydroxy-γ-lactone.
The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an established model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of the oral administration of disulfiram (DSF), a powerful antioxidant, on some blood test values of diabetes mellitus in OLETF rats. DSF (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to rats once a day (5:00 PM) beginning when the rats were 7 weeks of age, and the plasma levels of glucose (PG), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Total-cho) and insulin were measured from 10 to 38 weeks of age. The PG, TG, Total-cho and insulin levels did not change with aging in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, the strain used as a normal control. In contrast to the results in LETO rats, PG, TG and Total-cho levels all increased in OLETF rats with aging. The plasma insulin level in OLETF rats was also significantly higher than in LETO rats from 20 to 38 week of age. The Total-cho level in OLETF rats did not differ significantly between the saline and DSF administered groups. On the other hand, the oral administration of DSF attenuated the age-related increase in PG and TG levels in OLETF rats. In addition, the insulin level in DSF-administered OLETF rats was higher in comparison with saline-administered rats. The present study demonstrates that the oral administration of DSF to OLETF rats potently prevents the increase in PG levels and the decrease in insulin levels suggesting that DSF may provide effective therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.