A rapid analytical method for trans-fatty acid determination using a single capillary column was developed, and an isothermal condition for separating cis/trans-isomers with 30- to 60-m columns depending on the contents of the trans-fatty acids was established. Under the established conditions, analysis of trans-fatty acids was completed in 20 min for non-hydrogenated oils low in trans-fatty acids and in 40 min for hydrogenated oils rich in trans-fatty acids. The results were virtually the same as those obtained by the AOCS official method with a 100-m column. By correcting with molecular weights of fatty acid methyl esters and free fatty acids, it was confirmed that the analytical data were the same as those obtained by quantitative analysis using an internal standard. It is anticipated that this proposed method can be applied in a similar way to the AOCS official method, particularly in quality control processes.
The compositions of the essential oil from AKEBIAE FRUCTUS and AKEBIAE CAULIS, the dried fruits and stems of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE. (Lardizabalaceae), have been investigated by GC and GC/MS. As a result, the fruits oil was revealed the presence of 86 components, representing 98.4% of the total oil. The major compounds of the fruits oil were limonene, eugenol, octanal and p-cymene. The monoterpenoids and saturated short-chain aldehyde (C6∼C10) were main volatile fractions of the oil. Ninety components accounting for 90.5% of constituents of stems oil were identified, and the main compounds of the oil were hexanoic acid, palmitic acid, (2E, 4E)-decadienal and hexanol. The oil had high content of saturated fatty acids (C6∼C16), and unsaturated short-chain aldehyde (C6∼C10).
The following N-methylcarbamate pesticides, aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, aldicarb sulfone, oxamyl, methomyl, thiodicarb, propoxur, carbofuran, carbosulfan, benfuracarb, bendiocarb, carbaryl, fenobcarb and furathiocarb, were added to soybean oil, each at 5 mg/kg(5 ppm), followed by degumming, alkali refining, bleaching and deodorization for oil refinement. Residual pesticide content in each case was determined immediately after refining. DEGUMMING:Aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, aldicarb sulfone, oxamyl, thiodicarb, carbosulfan, benfuracarb were each found to decrease by as much as 70% by H3PO4 treatment, this being less than 26% noted for the other pesticides. With hot water treatment, the decrease in any one pesticide was less than 52%. ALKALI REFINING: The rate of decrease varied with the pesticide, ranging from 8% to 100%. 200%NaOH were effectively brought about pesticide removal, compared to 125%NaOH. BLEACHING: Aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, aldicarb sulfone, oxamyl, methomyl, thiodicarb, carbosulfan, benfuracarb, bendiocarb and furathiocarb each decreased by more than 80% with activated clay containing activated charcoal. Carbaryl decreased remarkably by this clay. Pesticide removal in all cases was at less than 30%. DEODORIZATION: 40% Furathiocarb, 14% carbosulfan, 11% benfuracarb and 3% carbofuran could still be detected subsequent to deodorization at 260°C while all other pesticide amounts were too small to permit quantitative detection. Degumming with H3PO4 and bleaching with activated clay caused the conversion of carbosulfan and benfuracarb into carbofuran. Carbofuran and furathiocarb may thus possibly still remain in the oil following the above 4 refinement processes.
Oxidation decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids with singlet oxygen generated from a photosensitizing agent was investigated in liposome bilayer membranes under a light irradiation condition. The liposome of which the bilayer membrane was composed of L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and an unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, or arachidonic acid) were prepared with Bangham’s method. In irradiating the liposome dispersion with light ranged from 550 to 750 nm, the unsaturated fatty acid was decomposed through an oxidation reaction with singlet oxygen. The decomposition rate constant was obeyed as the following order: arachidonic acid > oleic acid > α-linolenic acid > linoleic acid. This result indicates that oleic acid is readily degraded despite its lower unsaturated degree. In addition, micropolarity and microfluidity of the hydrocarbon region in the liposome bilayer membrane including the unsaturated fatty acid and PpIX decreased with an increase in light irradiation time. These findings suggest that interaction among the hydrocarbon chains of DPPC in the liposome bilayer membrane is promoted by migration of the oxidized unsaturated fatty acid from the hydrocarbon region, leading to form close-packed and well-ordered orientation of the hydrocarbon chains.
Reactive Oxygen Spiecies (ROS) such as superoxide anion radical (·O2-) act as signals for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. However, excess ROS generated by perturbing ·O2- homeostasis stimulated many environmental stress, including intense light, drought, temperature stress, herbicides, induce high radical toxicity. Consequently, quantitative analysis of ·O2- is a subject of intense research, since most of ROS are derived from ·O2-. Iron meso-tetrakis(3-thienyl)porphyrin complexes were electropolymerized onto a Au wire electrode. The modified Au electrode were applied to ·O2- sensor to detect catalytic oxidation current of ·O2- which was generated as an intermediate during the oxidation of xanthine by catalystic XOD. It was revealed that the sensor was quantitative to measure ·O2-. The modified Au electrode were applied to measure oxidation current of ·O2- in mung beans under environmental stress condition. Plants were grown in atmosphere, 25°C and in black darkness. The other plants were exposed to oxygen excess. The oxidation current of ·O2- were increased plants were grown by high-oxygen environment compared to plants were grown at atmosphere. This experiment was indicated that environmental stress such as hyperoxia induced excess ·O2- and Au wire sensor using iron porphyrin complexes is capable of ·O2- detection in plants under environmental stresses.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many disease such as inflammation, arteriosclerosis, cancer. Therefore, a water-soluble cationic metalloporphyrins with SOD activity are studied widely as antioxidant drugs. Further, liposomes are applied to drug delivery system (DDS) as drug carriers and investigated for example disposition and stability. We designed PEG modified liposomes for avoiding reticuloendothelial system (RES) and embedded cationic metalloporphyrins for DDS, evaluated antioxidant and anticancer property. Preservation of these particle size measured DLS in an in vitro system, in order to simulate in vivo conditions of flow. Result of this measurement, we found Pluronic F-68/ liposomes have a long circulation property, and avoid fusion with plasma protein. SOD activity was determined by the stopped-flow analysis and cytochrome c assay, which allowed the evaluation of kcat and IC50 for the reaction with a superoxide anion radical (·O2-). Anti cancer property was measured by cell viability test. We found that F-68/ liposomes were the most effective catalyst as antioxidant and anticancer. These results revealed that porphyrin-embedded PEG-liposomes had the property of long circulation in blood and that this compound was effective as a SOD model compound with a drug carrier capacity.
A water-soluble cationic 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(2-dimethylsulfoniophenyl)-porphinatomanganese(III) ion (MnT2M2SuP) and a 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(4-dimethylsulfoniophenyl)porphinatomanganese(III) ion (MnT4M2SuP) were synthesized as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics which were introduced into PEG-liposome composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Pluronic F-68 to examine the effect of the liposome on the capacity for use as drug delivery system (DDS) to maintain and perpetuate blood circulation. Fluorescence spectra in pseudo blood circulation experiments indicated that MnT4M2SuP continued to be bundled in PEG-liposome, while fluorescence from cross-section of cell observed by confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that PEG-liposome was ingested into a cell. SOD activity was determined by stopped-flow analysis, which allowed the determination of kcat values for the reaction of the metalloporphyrins with superoxide anion radical (·O2-). Solution of PEG-liposome loaded with MnT2M2SuP or MnT4M2SuP were the most effective catalyst as a SOD mimic to decompose ·O2- at second-order rate constants of 3.5-4.5×107 M-1s-1.
After Swedish researchers reported that heated foods such as potato chips and French fries contain acrylamide, the potential for health damage resulting from the consumption of these foods became a widespread concern. Used frying oils collected from food manufacturing companies were subjected to acrylamide determination using GC/MS-SIM, but the compound was not detected. Thus, we conclude that frying oil used in deep frying would not contaminate foodstuffs with acrylamide and that the recovered oil, much of which is used as a component of animal feeds, would be safe for livestock. Model experiments heating oil at 180°C suggested that no acrylamide was formed either from a mixture of major amino acids exuded from frying foodstuffs and carbonyl compounds generated from oxidized oil, or from oil and ammonia generated from amino acids.