Dietary intake of high trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is well known to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, few reports demonstrated definitive relationships between dietary TFAs and obesity. In addition, the difference in the gastrointestinal absorption rate of TFAs containing oil from that of cis-FAs containing oil was not taken into consideration in many rat studies. In experiment A, we investigated the difference in the apparent absorption rate of TFAs containing oil from control oil. Hydrogenated rapeseed oil and a mixture of camellia oil and tristearin (90:10 [w/w]) were used as TFA-containing test oil and control oil, respectively. Ten Wistar rats were divided into the control group or TFA group, and fed the respective diet containing the control oil or the test oil for 1 week. The apparent absorption rates of these oils were measured by fecal fat excretion rate and dietary fat intake. The results showed a significantly lower gastrointestinal apparent absorption rate of the test oil (93.1%) than that of the control oil (96.2%). In consideration of the apparent absorption rate of these dietary oils, the effects of dietary TFAs on body fat accumulation and energy metabolism were investigated in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into the control group or the TFA group. Each group received an isoenergetic diet containing the control oil or the test oil for 8 weeks. Pre- and postprandial metabolic rates were measured between weeks 7 and 8. The test oil-based diet did not significantly influence body weight gain, fat accumulation, and metabolic rate. In contrast, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride content, and serum non-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (CHO)/HDL-CHO ratio were significantly higher in the TFA group than in the control group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dietary TFAs did not influence body fat accumulation but increased the levels of risk markers of cardiovascular diseases.
We report a useful lithographic technique for the fabrication of organic or metal films on wettability-patterned surfaces fabricated solely through self-assembly. The phase-separated structures in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films can be tuned by adjusting intermolecular interactions in film-forming molecules such as fatty acids, hybrid carboxylic acids, and silane-coupling agents. Templates are fabricated from phase-separated mixed LB films and organic phosphor and metal films can be formed on the templates using casting, dip-coating, and solvent evaporation techniques. This methodology enables low-cost and low-energy fabrication of patterned films comprising solution-processable materials in small facilities.
The soil removal behavior from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films was investigated using a microscopic image analysis system. Carbon black or stearic acid as a model soil was deposited onto a PET film. The PET film was cleaned in various aqueous and non-aqueous solutions by applying stirring or frequency-modulated ultrasound as a mechanical action of soil removal. The amounts of soil deposited on the PET film before and after cleaning were obtained via binary processing of microscopic images, from which the removal efficiency was calculated. Most of the carbon black was deposited on the PET film as submicron aggregates and ultrasound removed them efficiently in a short time, even for relatively smaller aggregates. The removal efficiencies with stirring were less than ca. 10% in all solutions, whereas the removal using ultrasound had high efficiencies that exceeded 80% in the surfactant-free systems. In the case of stearic acid, the removal efficiency with stirring was below 30% in the aqueous solutions, although stearic acid was removed completely in ethanol and n-decane. For ultrasonic cleaning, the removal efficiencies of stearic acid in aqueous solutions became 2-3 times as large as those with the stirring action. To improve soil release in aqueous solutions, the PET film was treated by the dry processing using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) equipment. The wettability and the surface free energy of the PET film were found to increase due to surface oxidation via the APPJ treatment, which resulted in enhanced removal of carbon black and stearic acid in any aqueous solutions.
Two kinds of long-chain amidoamine derivatives (C13A2AA and C17A2AA) bearing three amide moieties and terminal amine moieties were synthesized and their gelation abilities in apolar solvents were compared with the previously reported amidoamine gelator containing two amide moieties (C18AA). The derivatives acted as organogelators in the same organic solvents. XRD and FT-IR measurements revealed that C13A2AA and C17A2AA formed lamellar-like aggregates in the organogels, in which amide moieties were in the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding state. In addition, C17A2AA was found to have an outstanding capacity as a soft template for Au nanowires, allowing the successful preparation of Au NWs at a low (0.3 wt%) concentration of [C17A2AA].
The serum and liver lipid-lowering effects of dietary freeze-dried blueberry leaf powder (BL) and its hydrothermal extract (BLHE) were examined in rats fed diets with or without cholesterol supplementation. Administration of 1% and 3% BL had no adverse effects on food intake or growth; however, relative liver weights were reduced in rats fed diets with and without dietary cholesterol. In the absence of dietary cholesterol, a dose-dependent reduction was evident. The effects of dietary BL on the concentration of serum lipids were marginal; however, the effects on liver triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesterol levels were apparently dose-dependent when the animals were fed diets free of cholesterol. Further, BL significantly attenuated dietary cholesterol-dependent accumulation of hepatic cholesterol, but not of TG. Hydrothermal treatment studies suggested that the active component of BL in terms of its liver lipid-lowering activity is relatively stable at high temperatures. Histopathological analysis of hepatic tissues revealed that BL administration suppresses fatty infiltrations induced by an AIN 76-based high-sucrose diet. The results of this study suggest that some of the active components of BL extracts, which are incorporated into the liver, prevent fatty liver in rats. These results provide further support for the investigation of dietary BL and derivatives thereof as functional human foods.
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multi-functional glycoprotein found in milk. In a previous clinical trial, we showed that enteric-coated bovine LF (bLF) tablets could reduce visceral fat accumulation. We also showed that bLF had anti-adipogenic activity in vitro. However, the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear. In this study, we established an animal model of visceral fat reduction via oral bLF administration. We used gastric intubation to ensure that LF was absorbed in the small intestine. bLF administration for 4 weeks significantly reduced mesenteric fat tissue (P < 0.05) and hepatic triglyceride levels (P < 0.01). Furthermore, these two outcomes were positively correlated (R = 0.581, P < 0.05). Overall, these findings suggest that bLF affects mesenteric adipocytes and fatty acid metabolism in the liver.
Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.
This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m2/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m2/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m2/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.