Abstract: Liquid detergent has an increasing demand in North America, Western Europe, and Southeast Asia countries owing to its convenience to use and efficiency to clean. Alpha methyl ester sulfonates (α-MES), an anionic surfactant derived from palm oil based methyl ester, was reported to have lower manufacturing cost, good detergency with less dosage, excellent biodegradability, higher tolerance to hard water, and lower eco-toxicity as compared to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABS). LABS was known as the workhorse of the detergent industry in the 20th century. Although palm-based α-MES was successfully used as the sole surfactant in powder detergent, there are still some unsettled technical issues related to phase stability and viscosity when using this anionic surfactant in heavy-duty laundry liquid detergent formulations. This paper will review not only the market overview of detergents, the application and performance of green surfactants in laundry detergents but also will highlight the technical issues related to the application of palm-based α-MES in laundry liquid detergent and some of the possible methods to overcome the formulation adversities.
Biodiesel is a viable alternative to petroleum diesel. The properties of the biodiesel depend on the feedstock used to produce it. A significant difference in properties exists between different biodiesels. Therefore, standards for biodiesel fuel had been developed considering many factors such as safe handling, corrosion, ignition quality, stability, cold flow property, and performance. For using biodiesel as fuel, the properties of the biodiesel should be within the limits specified in the standard. Unfortunately, biodiesel produced from many feedstocks does not comply with the specifications for all the properties. To utilize biodiesel with poor quality, biodiesels can be blended so that the properties of the blend comply with the specifications. Determining the optimal biodiesel blend ratio experimentally requires a lot of effort particularly when the number of parameters to be optimized is more and when the number of constituent biodiesels in the blend is more. In this work, the application of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to predict optimal blends for different scenarios is demonstrated.
This study aimed to examine the chemical composition of wheat germ oil extracted by three different methods, and to evaluate its inhibitory effect on the cyclooxygenase and proteinase activities. The results showed that the contents of policosanols, tocopherols and phytosterols were affected by the extraction procedure. However, the fatty acid composition of the different oil extracts was nearly the same. Among the tested oils samples, cold pressed oil exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against proteinase (93.4%, IC50 =195.7 µg/mL) and cyclooxygenase 1 (80.5%, IC50 =58.6 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cold pressed oil had the highest content of octacosanol, β-sitosterol and α-linolenic acid, suggesting that those bioactive compounds could be essential for the potent ani-cyclooxygenase activity. The present data revealed that wheat germ oil contained cyclooxygenase and trypsin inhibitors, which are the promising therapeutic target for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Thus, wheat germ oil might be used to develop functional foods and pharmaceutic products for the human health.
Vitamin C (VC)-loaded oleogel (VCOG) with corn oil and monoglyceride stearate was used to replace lipid phase of margarine completely. The oxidative stability of VCOG was evaluated at 60±1°C in a lightproof oven for 18 days and the result showed that VCOG peroxide (> 6 days) and p-anisidine value (> 4 days) was significantly lower than that of bulk oil and VC-free oleogel (p < 0.05). Then, the margarine containing 79.70% VCOG (VCOGM) was in comparison with four commercial butter in sensory and physical characteristic. Results showed that firmness, solid fat content and trans fatty acid of VCOGM were in the lowest values while unsaturated fatty acid and adhesiveness of VCOGM was in the highest values. Furthermore, VCOGM presented the similar springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, score appearance, texture, taste and overall impression to some/all commercial butters selected in this research (p > 0.05). These results implied that VC-loaded oleogel was an excellent alternative of lipid phase in margarine which confirmed by 55% “definitely buy” and 25% “try once-then decide”.
The effects of bile salts on the emulsifier adsorption layer play a crucial role in lipid digestion. The current study selected sodium cholate (NaCh) and lecithin as model compounds for bile salts and food emulsifiers, respectively. The interface dilational rheological and emulsification properties of NaCh and lecithin were carried out. The results showed that the NaCh molecules could quickly diffuse from the bulk to interface, which broke the tightly-arranged interfacial layer of lecithin and enhanced the viscoelasticity of interfacial film. As a result, the interfacial adsorption layer, which was originally dominated by the slow relaxation processes within the interface, was transformed into one controlled by the fast molecular diffusion exchange. This accelerated the exchange of materials between the bulk and interface, thereby creating suitable conditions for the interfacial adsorption of lipases, which promoted the digestion process. These results provided a mechanism for the promotion of lipid digestion by bile salts from the perspective of interfacial viscoelasticity and relaxation processes. A deeper understanding of the interfacial behavior of bile salts with emulsifiers would provide a basis for the rational design of interfacial layer for modulating lipid digestion.
Control of powder alignment is essential for maximizing the functionality of color cosmetics and sunscreens. Various surface treatments were applied to nanosized titanium dioxide to modify their surface characteristics. Such modifications can be used to control the behavior of dispersions in cosmetics, enabling them to align uniformly. The powders were mixed with solvents and applied to a cellulose triacetate film. The features of powder alignment on the film were evaluated using several approaches. When the type of surface treatment changed by varying the weight ratio, there was no significant correlation between its alignment and treatment. However, when we focused on the pseudo-HLB each treated pigment, their alignments were correlated. It was confirmed that the powders subjected to the appropriate surface treatment combinations from the pseudo-HLB standpoint made it possible to align uniformly and create a smooth coating film. As a result, it has a high UV-shielding ability. The surface-treated powders in this study were found to change the UV shielding ability and surface roughness of the layer formed when they were formed by spreading the sample powder dispersion and drying of the film. It was suggested that the pseudoHLB, which is calculated based on the chemical structure after the surface treatment process, is useful for choosing the optimum surface treatment to create a uniformly aligned pigment layer.
The size, dispersibility, and fluidity of DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), POPC (1-palmitoy-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) liposomes doped with β-sitosteryl sulfate (PSO4) were comparatively studied. In all three types of liposomes, PSO4 reduced sizes and enhanced the negative values of the ζ-potential. However, the effect on sizes quantitatively differed in the three cases in a manner dependent on their phase behaviors. PSO4 rigidified each type of membrane in its liquid crystalline phase and fluidized the gel phase. It enhanced the glucose trapping efficiency (TE) of both DPPC and DOPC liposomes. The TE of DPPC first increased with the increasing concentration of PSO4, then decreased gradually. On the other hand, in the case of DOPC, the TE increased significantly upon addition of PSO4, then remained nearly constant. Though the exact dependence of TE on the PSO4 concentration differed in the two cases, its effect, in each case, was more than the effect of β-sitosterol (POH). The ability of PSO4 for reducing the size and enhancing dispersibility and TE of liposomes can be useful for preparing cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations.
A novel spontaneous emulsification method using porous polymer particles was investigated for the facile preparation of emulsions without mechanical manipulation. Porous water-soluble polymer particles prepared by spray freeze-drying could absorb soybean oil via capillary action. When the particles were added to water, emulsification proceeded rapidly with the dissolution of the polymer. The importance of using a water-soluble polymer for particle formation for the formation of fine emulsions and maintenance of dispersibility was confirmed. This emulsification technology is expected to be applied to the development of formulations that improve the solubility and mucosal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.
In this study, we aimed to investigate imine emulsification using Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics. The imine emulsification samples were obtained by mixing aldehydes and amines in methanol and aqueous methanol. The Raman spectra of the samples were measured over time between 400 and 2300 cm-1 every 40 s using a Raman spectrometer. The obtained spectra were regarded as a dataset matrix. A multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares was applied to the dataset. A multivariate analysis based on the Raman spectrum revealed that raw materials, emulsions, and products were decomposed when the water-rich samples were emulsified. Additionally, we evaluated the kinetics of the synthesis. The effect of water content on emulsification was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The molecular dynamics of the co-solvent model were also investigated. The phase-layer construction was consistent with the phase transition in the water-methanol imine samples.
Previous research has proven that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is broadly considered virus used in the experimental model of animals, which causes myocarditis in humans. To investigate whether there exists a cardio-protective effect of crocetin in an experimental murine model of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Male BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to three groups: control, myocarditis treated with placebo and myocarditis treated with crocetin (n = 40 animals per group). Myocarditis was established by intraperitoneal injection with CVB3. Twenty-four hours after infection, crocetin was intraperitoneally administered for 14 consecutive days. Twenty mice were randomly selected from each group to monitor a 14-day survival rate. On day 7 and day 14, eight surviving mice from each group were sacrificed and their hearts and blood were obtained to perform serological and histological examinations. Expression of ROCKs, interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), RORγt, and Foxp3 was quantified by RT-PCR. Plasma levels of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-17 were measured by ELISA. In addition, protein levels of IL-17 and ROCK2 in cardiac tissues were analyzed by Western blot. Crocetin treatment significantly increased survival, attenuated myocardial necrotic lesions, reduced CVB3 replication and expression of ROCK2 and IL-17 in the infected hearts. ROCK pathway inhibition was cardio-protective in viral myocarditis with increased survival, decreased viral replication, and inflammatory response. These findings suggest that crocetin is a potential therapeutic agent for patients with viral myocarditis.
In this research, the anti-cancer activity of the Populus euphratica extract was evaluated with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The inhibitory activity of the Populus euphratica extract on the activation levels of VEGF signaling pathway in the cancer cells was measured with real time RT-PCR. Next, the high-throughput Illumina pair-end sequencing was performed to detect the chloroplast (cp) genome of Populus euphratica for genome evolution assessment. The CCK-8 results indicated that the extract of Populus euphratica exhibited the significantly suppression effect on the viability of the cancer cells, and the data of the real time RT-PCR showed the activation levels of VEGF signaling pathway in the cancer cells was also reduced obviously by the Populus euphratica extract. The circular cp genome of the Populus euphratica is 157,806 bp, encoding 131 genes, containing 8 Ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 37 Transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and 86 Protein coding genes (PCGs). And the results of the phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Populus euphratica. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that Populus euphratica has the closest relationship with Populus pruinosa. In addition to Populus pruinosa, Populus ilicifolia also has closely relationship with Populus euphratica. These three species could be clustered on the same clade.
Enzyme-assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. seed oil (PSO) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The fatty acid composition and anti-Alzheimer’s disease (AD) activity of PSO were analyzed. An enzyme mixture composed of cellulase and hemicellulase (1:1, w/w) was most effective in determining the extraction yield of PSO. The ideal extraction conditions were a pH value of 5.1, an enzymolysis time of 68 min, and a temperature of 50℃. The average extraction yield of PSO was 38.2 mL/100 g, 37.4% higher than that of untreated peony seed (27.8 mL/100 g). The fatty acid composition of PSO under optimal conditions for EASE was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant unsaturated fatty acids of PSO were determined to be more than 90.00%, including n-3 α-linolenic acid (43.33%), n-6 linoleic acid (23.40%) and oleic acid (23.59%). In this experiment, the anti-AD effect of PSO was also analyzed by performing learning and memory ability tests with Drosophila. PSO retarded the decrease in climbing ability in AD Drosophila. The 1% and 5% PSO groups were significantly different from the model group (b p < 0.05). The smell short-term memory ability test revealed the number of Drosophila in barrier and barrier-free centrifuge tubes in each group. PSO feeding improved learning and memory in AD Drosophila, with the highest number entering the barrierfree centrifuge tube. The performance index (PI) measured by the Pavlov olfactory avoidance conditioning test also demonstrated the effect of PSO on the learning and memory abilities of Drosophila. The PI of the PSO group was significantly increased compared to that of the model group. HE-stained brain tissue sections of AD Drosophila showed higher neurodegenerative changes, while PSO significantly reduced neurodegenerative damage. These results indicated that PSO can significantly improve the cognitive function of AD Drosophila and may help to prevent AD.
In plants and fungi, sphingolipids, characterized by the presence of a sphingoid base (SB), comprise neutral classes, including ceramide (Cer) and glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and acidic classes, including glycosyl inositol phosphoryl ceramide (GIPC). The major class of plant and fungal sphingolipids is GIPC; however, owing to their complicated extraction and analysis, there is still little information regarding the food characteristics of GIPC compounds. In the present study, we evaluated the content and SB composition of highly polar sphingolipids (HPS) in materials that had been obtained from our previous food processing study for GlcCer and Cer. This assessment was based on the changes that occur in HPS containing GIPC in sake rice (saka-mai) during the rice polishing and sake (rice wine) brewing process. In addition, we report a new investigation into the composition of sphingolipids in koji rice and sake yeast. HPS levels were the highest among the sphingolipid classes in brown rice cultivars and highly polished rice. Sake and sake lees (sake-kasu) were produced using three different starter cultures. In sake lees, Cer levels were the highest among the classes, while HPS was greatly reduced based on the amount of highly polished rice and koji rice, and these HPS were mainly composed of sphinganine (d18:0), which is a minor SB in highly polished rice, koji rice, and sake yeast. In addition, considerable levels of free SBs, mainly comprising d18:0, were detected in sake lees. The levels of HPS and free SBs in sake lees were dependent on the starter culture. These results suggest that HPS was hydrolyzed to Cer and that sake yeast also affected the levels of Cer and free SBs during brewing. One interesting question raised by these results is whether changes in the class and base compositions of sphingolipids during brewing contribute to taste of the final product and other food functions.
Liquid chicken oil is similar to the human lipid ratio, and is similar to the ideal fatty acids ratio suggested by Hayes, but its benefits remain unclear (Hwang, K.N.; Tung, H.P.; Shaw, H.M. J. Oleo. Sci. 69, 199-206 (2020)). Using soybean oil as a control, liquid chicken oil, coconut oil, lard oil, and olive oil, were tested on SD rats with the rodent diet 5001 plus 1% of high cholesterol addition and moderate 10 % of test oils. Positive results showed that a 10% liquid chicken oil diet reduced LDL and triglycerides, atherogenic index while increasing superoxide dismutase more than the soybean oil control (0.05 ≦ p < 0.10). Moreover, increment of hepatic endogenous glutathione peroxidase was found to be significantly different from the soybean oil control (p < 0.05). In this study, liquid chicken oil had more benefits than vegetable soybean dietary oil, with little evidence of hyperlipidemia. Comparison of the test oils with categories of fatty acids to the idea ratio SFA : MUFA : PUFA = 1 : 1.5 : 1, scored by its average weight implied a parallel trend of lipidemia and hepatic antioxidant activity to its score. It is difficult to use the test of rat to reflect human physiology, it remain 19% different of the fatty acids ratio from human ratio, however, this study reveal that the healthiness of a dietary oil seems relate well to its compatibility to the idea ratio or the host oil ratio, in this case, it is the human ratio.
A mixture of p-toluenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (TsOH-H2SO4) was used as a catalyst with a good performance in transesterification of palm oil (PO) with methanol and etherification of crude glycerol with isobutylene (tandem synthesis). For TsOH-H2SO4 catalyzed biodiesel production, the reaction noticeably ran faster in comparison with TsOH or H2SO4 alone and also gave up to 99.9% of the conversion using MeOH/PO molar ratio 9:1 at 80℃, in the period of 4 h. After the whole transesterification process, the crude glycerol phase was separated and then reacted with isobutylene in the etherification process using isobutylene/glycerol molar ratio 9:1 at 80℃, in the period of 5 h reaction time, to give DTBG and TTBG (91.14%). In the case of the etherification in biodiesel, higher selectivity of DTBG and TTBG (99.39%) was obtained in comparison with an absence of biodiesel as the solvent. Furthermore, the catalyst could be reused for 6 cycles of tandem synthesis (transesterification and etherification). The TsOH-H2SO4 catalyst showed a good catalytic performance in tandem synthesis similar to TsOH and it could be recovered for reuse while TsOH could not be recovered. This process offers an attractive route for reuse homogeneous catalyst of tandem synthesis, the main by-product of biodiesel, to tert-butyl glycerol ethers - a value-added in applications as a valuable fuel additive.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising tool for the screening of glycolipid-type biosurfactants (BSs) from a crude extract of microbial products. However, it is unsuitable for the detection of lower molecular weight products because the observed ions are overlapped with matrix-derived ions at lower mass range. In this study, we applied a “matrix-free” surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) analysis using a through-hole alumina membrane as an ionization-assisting substrate. Using this method, we could detect a variety of lower molecular weight products in an extract of a glycolipid BS producer with good sensitivity. In addition, the culture solution could be analyzed directly by this method.