We have carried out a kinetic and thermodynamic study on the hydrolysis of sodium laurate (NaLA) taking place at given water/oil interfaces in parallel with the transfer of hydrolyzed species (lauric acid, HLA) into different oil phases comprised primarily of benzene(Bz), dodecane(C12) or dodecylbenzene(C12Bz) with and without added amphiphiles such as hexadecanol(C16OH) and cholesterol(Ch) as functions of temperature and concentration of added amphiphiles. The contact of aqueous NaLA solution with the respective oil phases was found to cause enhanced hydrolysis of NaLA and lead to a pH rise in the bulk phase of aqueous solution. According to the previous kinetic sturdy, measured concentration change of OH- or HLA with time was completely simulated by computer and enabled us to determine the rate constants (k) as well as the concentration of OH- or HLA ([OH-]0 or [HLA]0, respectively) at partition equilibria. The partition coefficient, Kpt was found to depend markedly on conditions such as oil solvents with or without added amphiphile species and its concentration as well as temperature. The present paper reports upon the results of thermodynamic analysis of partition coefficients as well as discussion of the enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon observed in the transfer of HLA into oil phase or partition of HLA between oil/water phases.
Disulfiram (DSF) and cefmetazole (CMZ), which possess with anti-oxidative activities were tested for anti-cataract effect in rats and were compared with pirenoxine (PRX), which is a marketed product used for the treatment of cataract. These compounds were encapsulated in liposomes and the results were compared with the anti-cataract effect of suspension and solution formulations containing same contents of each other agents. Instillations of DSF- and CMZ-liposomes prevented the development of cataract in selenite-injected rat pups. On the other hand, no anti-cataract effects were observed in selenite-induced cataract rats instilled with DSF suspensions and CMZ solutions. The reduced form of glutathione (GSH) content of the lenses was decreased by approximately 60% of normal level 96 h after the sodium selenite-injection and the calcium (Ca2+) content was increased. The decreased GSH and increased Ca2+ levels were prevented by instillation of DSF- and CMZ-liposomes. Instillation of PRX-liposomes and 0.03% PRX solution had no effect on the development of cataract. The results of this study confirmed that anti-oxidative agents such as DSF and CMZ were useful to prevent cataract development related to oxidative stress.
In order to promote the shift to zero emissions of organic wastes, it is necessary to create carbon cycling processes. On the other hand, one of the distinguishing features of the Japanese climate is its high humidity, and an adsorbent which is high ability of moisture control are needed to prevent putrefaction of wood and keep indoor spaces at a comfortable humidity. This research focused on producing a carbonaceous material produced from bean curd lees, which is a form of food waste, and studied the relationship between the surface polarity or specific surface area of carbonaceous material, and the ability of moisture control. The specific surface area of the carbonaceous material was measured, and the highest value was exhibited in carbonaceous material produced at a temperature of 1173K. From this result, it appears that a microstructure develops as the carbonization temperature increases, but when the carbonization temperature is increased further, the specific surface area decreases due to merging of pores. Also, the ability of moisture control of charcoal is 22, and the ability of moisture control of the carbonaceous material produced from bean curd lees is a maximum of 198. This suggests that the material can be used in applications as a moisture control material. This work clarified that the ability of moisture control of the carbonaceous material increases to the degree that there are fewer phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxyl groups in the carbonaceous material surface.
Coffee grounds are a vegetable biomass that can be efficiently burned. The carbon dioxide generated by burning coffee grounds is affecting global warming. On the other hand, ammonia generated in the places such as toilets or farms produces a bad smell. In the present study, we have analyzed the possibility of ammonia elimination using the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds. Carbonaceous materials were prepared by the microwave treatment of coffee grounds. We observed that the saturated amounts of ammonia adsorbed by some of the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than that adsorbed by activated carbon. In contrast, the activated carbon adsorption rate for ammonia was higher than those of the carbonaceous materials. Therefore, carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds could be utilized for the removal of ammonia in the gaseous phase.
The compositions of the essential oil from Rubiae Radix (roots of Rubia cordifolia, Rubiaceae) have been investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The important odor-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-Olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, 43 components, accounting for 91.5 % of the total oil, were detected. The main components in the essential oil were mollugin (19.6%), furomollugin (17.4%), eugenol (12.7%) and (E)-anethole (10.6%). AEDA and GC-O showed that geraniol, eugenol and geranyl acetate were the most aroma-compounds.
Electrochemical characterization was made of a dual porphyrin system built on a calixarene spacer and that of a porphyrin monomer. The porphyrin dimer showed marked affinity toward 1,4-diazobicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) such as that of molecular tweezers and reacted strongly with large interactions in the ground state as indicated by electrochemical behavior. Compared to the monomeric porphyrin, the initial oxidation potentials for this dimer were significantly reduced and reoxidation occurred in two distinct redox steps.