The present study was examined the ability of medium- and long-chain triglycerides (MLCT) to activate hepatic fatty acid oxidation and lipogenic enzymes, and the ability was compared with that of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and long-chain triglyceride rapeseed oil (LCT). Emulsified samples of three test oils were administered orally to Wistar rats, and were measured the hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase) activity and a lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthase) activity in the liver after 30 min of administration spectrophotometrically. Among the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases measured, the highest activity was seen in particular in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase following MLCT administration. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the lipogenic enzyme activity. Although MLCT contained only one-seventh amount of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in MCT composed exclusively MCFA, these results indicate that the amount of MCFA in MLCT would seem to the minimal effective dosage to activate hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes as seen in MCFA studies to date.
We proposed the application of social life cycle assessment (called social LCA) as part of a comprehensive study of consumer behavior related to home laundry. In this study, in place of typical environmental life cycle assessments of product (called ISO-LCA), we took the new approach of examining consumer behavior. We then examined a plan to reduce environmental effects during the overall life cycle. In recent years consumer behavior related to home laundry has changed due to shifts in family composition and lifestyle, increased use of the automatic washing machines that take into consideration environmental impact and the need to save energy, and changes in detergent selection, such as the use of compact powdered detergent whose dosage is diminishing per washing liquor. Within this context, we sought to assess typical consumer behavior using a survey. We also sought to examine consumer behavior using artificial soiled test cloths and laundering agents of a certain detergency. In addition, we used three types of washing machines due to clarify the effect of the large load capacities of the automatic washing machines. Our survey of laundry behavior proved that consumer washing behavior is complex. It was observed that, due to increased comprehension of the need to save water and conserve energy, many consumers have adjusted their home use of washing machines, opting to use automatic water-saving models and making use of large-load capacities to wash many clothes in a single cycle. In addition, the social LCA-based study, in which detergents, water use, and electricity consumed by washing machines were analyzed to ascertain washing behavior, it became clear that CO2 emissions during machine usage were significantly lower CO2 emissions released during the production of all types of washing machines. Our Social LCA-based study revealed that the latest generation of washing machines has produced many reductions in CO2 emissions. It was confirmed that the most common and effective consumer laundry behavior was made up of a decrease of washing frequency accompanied by an increased amount of laundry per cycle, a practice “Matome Arai,” can reduce total CO2 emissions during machine life cycle.
6-[(8Z)-8-pentadecenyl] salicylic acid  was isolated from the shell oil of Indonesian cashew nuts and used to synthesize two derivatives via epoxidation and hydrolysis of the C15 side chain. The antimicrobial activity of the derivatives toward Bacillus subtilis (Bs), Brevibacterium ammonigenes (Ba), Bacillus thuringienis israelenis (Bt), Propionibacterium acnes (Pac), Staphylococcus aurenus (Sa) and Streptococcus mutans (Sm) was examined. The two derivatives, 6-[8, 9-epoxy pentadecanyl] salicylic acid  and 6-[8, 9-dihydroxy pentadecanyl] salicylic acid  (at 0.39-3.13 μg/mL) derived from compound , were found to inhibit completely the growth of Pac and Sm. These derivatives were tested for their ability to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase. Compound  was found to inhibit tyrosinase (using tyrosine as a substrate) activity by 77.9%. The inhibitory rates exceeded that of Arbutin, a compound used in commercial cosmetics. We also examined their toxicity and whitening effect through the inhibition of melangenesis in B-16 melanoma cells, and confirmed their safety for use in cosmetics.
The optical resolution data were analyzed for Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL) catalyzed transesterification between vinyl acetate and 2-alkanol in organic solvent. The plots of log E (E: the enantiomeric ratio as the reaction is irreversible) agaist the extent of conversion (c) showed the maxima for all systems used. The competitive reaction in the optical resolution was verified by the analysis of the resolution data and an accordance of the enantiomeric excess (ee) vs. c plots between racemic and optically pure alcohols. The reverse reaction in the optical resolution was experimentally proved by a decrease in optical purity for the reaction of optically pure 1-methylheptyl acetate and 2-octanol in the presence of PCL. The first order plot showed a lenearity for the reaction with (R)-2-octanol but curveture for the (S) counterpart. Based on the above observations, we concluded that the transesterification with vinyl acetate did not obey the reported optical resolution equations because acetylation of the (S) isomer in racemic 2-alkanol with the acetyl-enzyme intermediate was surpressed. Thus, E increased with c in the range of below 0.5.
Enzymatic production of a docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil from tuna oil creates considerable amounts of free fatty acids (FFA), which are treated as an industrial waste but the handling is difficult because of their solid state. We thus attempted to convert the waste FFA (Tuna-FFA) to their methyl esters through an organic solvent-free enzymatic process. When waste Tuna-FFA were esterified at 30°C with two molar equivalents of methanol (MeOH) using 1.0 wt% immobilized Candida antarctica lipase, the esterification degree reached 95% after 24 h. The reaction was recycled by transferring the enzyme into a fresh substrate mixture every 24 h, but the esterification degree maintained 95% during 45 cycles. To further increase the esterification degree, the esterification was repeated with 5 molar equivalents of MeOH against the remaining FFA after dehydration of the mixture obtained by the single reaction. The repeated reaction increased the esterification degree to 97-98%.
A novel polar neutral lipid was isolated from thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula TA-2. The structure of this lipid was characterized to be 1,1′-bis[D-glucosyl-(β1-3)-D-galactosyl-(β1)]-sn-caldarchaeol by mass spectrometory, NMR analysis, chromatographilical profiles of the lipid and its degradation products.
The present study was undertaken in order to know the effect of supplemen-tation of a reductone in coffee, hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ), on lipid peroxidation and DNA damage of rat organs. Wistar male rats were fed a diet containing HHQ at 2.0% (w/w) for 1 wk. The extents of lipid peroxidation of lung and heart were increased by HHQ supplementation but that of liver was not, when assessed by the levels of phospholipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. In contrast, the extents of DNA damage of lung, heart and liver were not increased as assessed by the 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The results indicate that supplementation of HHQ to rats caused oxidative stress in lung and heart, but did not mediate DNA damage in these organs. The effect of HHQ supplementation on oxidative stress and the relationship between lipid peroxidation and DNA damage are discussed.