The effects of deamidation or fragmentation on the antioxidative activity of C hordein were investigated individually. Heat treatment at 70°C in 70% ethanol - 0.05 M HCl caused deamidation of C hordein with fragmentation. The antioxidative activity of C hordein was diminished by this deamidation. Trypsin digestion did not cause deterioration of the antioxidative activity of C hordein, whereas NBS fragmentation did. TGase deamidation also reduced the antioxidative activity of C hordein, as did fragmentation by N-bromosuccinimide.
Cotton garments were coated with titanium dioxide particles consisting of small single crystals. Organic soils such as liquid paraffin, triolein and oleic acid were used as organic dirt coming from human skin. The fabric with titanium dioxide was immersed into aceton solutions of these compounds, withdrawn, and then irradiated with UV with a low pressure Hg lamp. Detergency was calculated from spectral reflectance before and after UV irradiation. In case of liquid paraffin, positive detergency values were obtained in regions with wavelengths of 400 nm or above, but negative ones were obtained in regions with wavelengths of less than 300 nm. On the other hand, positive detergency values were observed in wavelengths of 600 nm or above; however, in regions with wavelengths of less than 400 nm, negative ones were observed for soils such as triolein and oleic acid. A positive value of detergency means that the soil was removed by decomposition from the cotton surface by the titanium dioxide photo-catalytic action. For negative values of detergency, it may be considered that coloration due to changes in chemical structure of soils.
The injectable formulation of E5880, a novel platelet factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, was developed. The physicochemical properties of E5880 micelles in the optimized formulation (0.6 mg/ml of E5880, 0.1% citric acid, 10% lactose, pH 2.8) were characterized. The critical micelle concentration of E5880 was 0.09 mg/ml, and the structure was spherical. The micelle size was 5.6 nm. The number of the molecules per micelle was 46. The micropolarity around the hydrocarbon region in the micelle was similar to that of isobutanol.
A high concentration of remnant-like particles (RLP) has shown to be an arteriosclerosis risk factor that strongly reflects disorders of chylomicron and VLDL metabolism in patients with hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of RLP-cholesterol after intake of meals containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) or long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in 29 healthy men. Test meals were prepared by a nationally registered dietitian as a pilaf containing 10 g of MCT or LCT and commercial clear soup. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after intake of the test meals. The concentrations of serum triglyceride, chylomicrons, chylomicron-triglyceride, RLP-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and VLDL-triglyceride after intake of MCT were lower than those after intake of the same amount of LCT. Moreover, the areas under the time-concentration curves of triglyceride, chylomicrons and RLP-cholesterol after intake of MCT were significantly lower than those after intake of LCT. The increases in concentrations of serum insulin and total ketone bodies after intake of MCT were significantly greater than those after intake of LCT. These results suggest that MCT may reduce the risk of coronary arteriosclerotic disease by attenuating the postprandial increase of RLP that is closely correlated with arteriosclerosis.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of phytosterol ester-enriched vegetable oil on the serum concentration of cholesterol and to assess its safety in healthy subjects with normocholesterolemics. Twenty-two healthy subjects completed this study in a double blind, parallel arm design. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (n = 11) and phytosterol ester-enriched group (n = 11), and fed either 42 g of phytosterol ester-enriched vegetable oil or control vegetable oil, containing about 1.336 g and 0.117 g of phytosterol (as the major free sterol) respectively, daily for 4 weeks. Serum lipids, apolipoproteins, serum fat-soluble vitamins, serum phytosterols and biochemical parameters were measured. The subjects were asked to report any side effect. Phytosterol ester-enriched vegetable oil significantly reduced the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, by 3.3%, 4.4% and 3.2% respectively, compared with control oil. No significant changes were found in the concentrations of triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol and other kinds of apolipoproteins. Neither vegetable oil affected the concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins (retinol and α-tocopherol) or β-carotene. Serum β-sitosterol and campesterol were significantly higher in the phytosterol ester-enriched vegetable oil group compared with the control oil group. The concentrations of biochemical parameters did not change in either group. There were no side effects or serious adverse events in either group during the administration. In conclusion, the results showed that a daily 1.336 g intake of phytosterol (as the major free sterol) is effective in lowering serum total- and LDL-cholesterol in healthy men and has no negative physiologic action.
The effect of mineral addition on γ-linolenic acid (GLA) production by Rhizopus nigricans SSSD-8 was studied. The cultivation was conducted at 30°C for 6 d in a 250 ml flask containing potato-dextrose-yeast medium with or without Na2SO4, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and/or KCl. Cultivation in potato-dextrose-yeast medium without minerals produced 0.53g/L-culture of GLA, and the addition of 0.4% KCl increased the GLA production to 2.52g/L-culture. The addition of mineral mixture failed to increase the GLA production. The addition of mineral mixture, caused no change in triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) compositions of the fungus.
Isolation of two new strains of pseudomonas with characteristic surface-active properties were isolated from soil contaminated with natural surfactant. Observation of surface tension properties indicated that biosurfactants were produced by these newly isolated and promising strains of Pseudomonas sp. (SB 3 and SB 5). The isolation of the microbes, their harvesting in the nutrient media, extraction of the bacterial lipid and composition of those lipids extracted, are discussed in the present study.