The aim of this study was to analyze the contents of ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lycopene, β-carotene and their antioxidant activities in the different maturity stages of tomatoes. The results showed that tomatoes in pink and red stages exhibited higher contents of ascorbic acid concomitant with the correspondent higher hydrophilic antioxidant activities. The contents of phenolics, carotenoids and lycopene were increasing till the red maturity stage. Significant correlation between the DPPH radical scavenging activity and carotenoids, however lycopene was effective in its lowest concentration. The β-carotene was intensively synthesized between the green and breaker maturity stages, and higher correlated with the FRAP capacity. These findings indicated that tomatoes can be considered as natural sources of bioactive compounds regardless of the maturity stages, while tomatoes in pink and red maturity stages has higher nutritional value and antioxidant activity.
In this research, yak butter (YB) microcapsule with different YB addition was successfully prepared by using maltodextrin/whey protein isolate/sodium caseinate as main wall materials. The microstructures, microencapsulation efficiency and possible sacculation mechanism was then analyzed. The in vitro intestinal digested behavior of the microcapsules affected by bile salts was monitored and investigated in details. The results indicated that microcapsules were hollow spheres with entrapped YB located in the wall materials. Higher YB addition resulted in inhomogeneous larger particles with decreased membrane thickness. H-bonding interactions between protein and carbohydrate ensured the integrity of the capsule wall. The in vitro digestion results suggested that the concentration of bile salts had significant impacts on the digestion behavior of microcapsules. The present of bile salts was necessary for pancreatin hydrolysis of wall material. Hydrolysis of pancreatin, emulsification of bile salt and its positive effect for pancreatin hydrolysis all happened during the digestion and affected the digested behavior in the end. This research would provide valuable information for the bioavailability of microcapsule in human gastrointestinal systems.
The purpose is to elucidate the effects of the duration of heat treatment on the resistance of vegetable oils to oxidative processes. Iodine and acid values were analyzed before and after heat exposure. Rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and a blend of rapeseed and sunflower oils (ratio 55:45) were used as samples. Sunflower oil heated at a temperature of 40°C for 80 minutes had its peroxide value increased by 3.0 times (p ≤ 0.05) as compared to rapeseed oil and the blend. At 75°C, the peroxide value increased by 4.0 times for sunflower oil (p ≤ 0.05), by 3.0 and 3.3 times for rapeseed oil (p ≤ 0.05), and by 3.1 and 3.4 times for the blend (p ≤ 0.05). At 40°C, no peroxide values were obtained that exceeded the threshold limits. The concentration of fatty acids in oils depends on the plant variety, growth conditions and maturity of seeds or fruits. Therefore, the concentration of fatty acids in the oil should be measured before oil blending.
Quince fruit powder can be obtained from the waste of the edible product. In this study, we modified the powder with various solvents and investigated its application in Pickering emulsification. The crushed Chinese quince fruit possessed excellent Pickering emulsifying abilities when the water-soluble components were removed. In addition to cellulose, the powder contains hydrophilic pectin and hydrophobic lignin fibers. Similarly, a powder consisting of cellulose and a small amount of lignin without pectin, which was obtained by further solvent treatment, also showed high emulsification performance. Although these two powders had different fiber compositions, their water contact angles were almost equal, and their surface hydrophilicity was lower than that of the cellulose-only powder without emulsification ability.
Surfactant-mediated gelation (SMG) is a technique used to form hydrogels by solubilizing water-insoluble low-molecular-weight organogelators in surfactant micelles. In this study, we investigated the viscoelastic behavior of SMG hydrogels and the effect of micellar shape on their gel network structure using a glutamic acid-based organogelator. Stress-strain curves obtained from static viscoelasticity measurements showed that a wormlike micelle-mediated gel (W-SMG) exhibited a higher stress than a spherical micelle-mediated gel (S-SMG). From the viscosity-shear rate curve (flow curve), we inferred that the SMG gel exhibited a shear thickening behavior, particularly W-SMG. Microscopic observations revealed that W-SMG formed a denser and more uniform gel network than S-SMG when subjected to strong shearing. W-SMG showed remarkable adhesiveness and a significantly higher tensile normal stress than S-SMG. The storage modulus and loss modulus of W-SMG and the wormlike micellar solution obtained from frequency sweep measurements of the dynamic viscoelasticity were analyzed by Maxwell fitting. The wormlike micellar solution produced a good fit with the single Maxwell model, whereas W-SMG produced the best fit with the generalized Maxwell model comprising two Maxwell elements. From the relaxation time characteristics obtained from the Maxwell model, W-SMG was found to be a viscoelastic material coexisting with a structure having a short relaxation time derived from the gel network and a long relaxation time derived from the wormlike micelle. Under the oscillation strain measured by a rheometer, W-SMG showed a greater normal stress than the wormlike micellar solution, indicating a significant Weissenberg effect.
In the present study, the mesomorphic phase and internal structure of sucrose fatty acid ester (S1670) with cetyl alcohol mixed in different proportions was studied and assessed, within common emulsion system of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. To characterize the system’s colloidal structure the following physicochemical techniques were used: polarization microscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), continual and oscillatory rheology and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Ultimately, it was well established that there was a predominant and stable α-crystalline gel structure, formed with sucrose fatty acid ester (S1670) and cetyl alcohol, in the pseudo quarter-phase system (including squalane and aqua). In addition, the optimum ratio for α-crystalline gel formation was found to be around 61.50:38.50 (S1670 to Cetyl alcohol). Moreover, as it deviates from the critical point within a controllable range, although identical α-gel (α-form hydrated crystal) continues to exist, yet the strength and proportion in whole sample decrease with the expansion of deviation. The decent stability (which was derived from the dismatch between the lipophilic chains and the intensive hydration of -OH from S1670) and the agreeable rheological properties of the above α-gel suggest wide application in cosmetics and pharmacy in the future.
This study aims to determine the factors affecting the colloidal stabilization of emulsifier-free (EF) oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared by mixing oil and water with a high-powered bath-type ultrasonicator (HPBath-US; 28 kHz, 300 W) in the absence of emulsifiers such as surfactants. The interrelation between the colloidal stability, oil properties (oil density, interfacial tension between oil and water, solubility parameter of oil, and oil viscosity), and emulsion properties (diameter and zeta-potential of oil droplets) of such EF-O/W emulsions were examined for this purpose. The colloidal stability of EF-vegetable oil-in-water emulsions (EF-VEG/W) was significantly higher than that of EF-hydrocarbon oil-in-water emulsions (EF-HDC/W) and EF-fatty acid-in-water emulsions (EF-FA/W). This can be attributed to the larger density of vegetable oils (VEG) (approximately 0.9 g cm-3), the formation of smaller-sized oil droplets (diameter of approximately 0.2 µm) in the EF-VEG/W emulsions, and the lower solubility parameter of VEG (δ around 1). Furthermore, the formation of smaller-sized oil droplets in the EF-O/W emulsions correlated with the physical properties of the oil.
Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases and a risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular disease. Our previous study indicated a negative correlation between fat intake and blood pressure in subjects with a fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant. We investigated the effects of four fatty acid groups on blood pressure in healthy Japanese women with the gene variants, including the involvement of body mass index. A total of 227 Japanese women aged 18-64 years completed a 3-day nutritional intake diary and their blood pressure was measured. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 of the gene was genotyped, and the participants were divided into two genetic groups (those with or without at least one minor allele). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was applied to investigate the relationships between the fatty acids and blood pressure. A path analysis was performed to determine the effect of fatty acids on blood pressure including the involvement of body mass index. In the group with the gene variant, a significant negative correlation was detected between saturated fatty acid intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and between monounsaturated fatty acid intake and only diastolic blood pressure. In a path analysis of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, the path from only saturated fatty acid intake to blood pressure was significant, but the path from saturated fatty acids to body mass index was not significant. These results suggest that saturated fatty acid intake, without the involvement of body mass index, may be associated with the lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures in healthy Japanese women with a fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant.