Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are used as alternative carriers for many different drug delivery administration routes. They are composed of both solid lipid and liquid lipid (oil content) with both influencing their structural properties. Amounts of liquid lipid in NLCs play a role in drug release. Effect of liquid lipid (oil content) on physiochemical characteristics of NLCs related to drug-release requires detailed investigation. Here, many techniques were performed to analyze the physiochemical characteristics of NLCs, especially inside the particles. γ-Oryzanol (GO)-loaded NLCs were prepared at varying solid lipid to liquid lipid ratios. Their physicochemical properties, drug release profiles, and stability studies of prepared NLCs were investigated. Oil contents in NLCs were found to play a significant role in physiochemical characteristics related to drug release and stability, and also influence the efficiency of analytical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic force microscopy (DFM). Moreover, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) gave information regarding crystallinity inside the NLCs. FTIR showed broad peaks in the range from 1184 cm–1 to 1475 cm–1 while XRD presented a broad curve indicated amorphous forms in NLCs. Orthorhombic lattices (β’ polymorph) were also elucidated by XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Foxtail millet (FM) is one of the oldest cultivated grain crops with a variety of nutritions, and foxtail millet bran (FMB), a by-product of FM milling process, is also rich in variety of nutrient substance. There are four classifications of FMB, namely coarse bran (FMCB), skin bran (FMSB), polished bran (FMPB) and mixed bran (FMMB). Because these nutrients are distributed within the different fractions of FMB, we compared some chemical composition and its oleochemical properties of four FMB samples. Results showed that the oil extracted from FMB is high value-added plant oil. It contains abundant unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), with the main UFAs were linoleic acid (65%~69%) and oleic acid (12~17%), which accounted for more than 80% of the lipids. The main triacylglycerols were trilinolein (LLL) and oleodilinolein (OLL). There were no evident difference on fatty acid, triacylglycerol and sterols profiles for FMSB, FMPB and FMMB, but the contents of amino acids, tocols, squalene and oryzanol were different.
This work focused on physicochemical property assaying, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles, and unsaponifiable matters composition of the Chinese evening primrose oil. The cold press oil possessed very low acid value and peroxide value, and relatively high iodine value. Fatty acid composition results indicated that this oil was especially high in linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Characterization of TAG composition was achieved by a two-dimensional HPLC coupling of nonaqueous reverse-phase and silver ion HPLC with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS method. There was a total of 38 TAGs including 27 regioisomers which had been determined. Unsaponifiable matters composition results revealed that this oil possessed a number of phytosterols, in which β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were most predominant.
Oils from five cultivars of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) grown in Poland were analysed for characteristics of chemical and biological activity. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 99.2; a refractive index of (40°C) 1.4675; a saponification value of 189 mg of KOH/g of oil; and 0.68% unsaponifiable matter. As regards the oxidation state, the specific extinction values of the oils at 232 and 268 nm were 2.55 and 0.94, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.40 meq O2/kg and the p-anisidine value was 1.42. Oleic acid (70.70%) was the predominant fatty acid found in the oils, followed by linoleic (22.41%), palmitic (3.14%), stearic (1.4%), linolenic (0.90%), and palmitoleic (0.70%) acid. The content of α-, γ-, and δ- tocopherols in the oils from the five apricot cultivars was 19.6–40.0, 315.4–502.3, and 28.3–58.5 mg/kg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the apricot kernel oils, measured using the FRAP assay, ranged from 1.07 to 1.38 mM Fe2+/L, while total polyphenols and β-carotene content were 0.85–1.22 mM gallic acid/L and 42.3–66.8 μg/g, respectively. The results indicate that among the cultivars tested, the ‘Somo’ cultivar grown in Poland provides the most oil, with the highest antioxidant activity. The results of our study demonstrate that apricot seeds are a potential source of oil that can have both dietary and cosmetic applications.
Due to its availability and relatively high melting point, rice bran wax can be used in foods and cosmetics as an oil solidifying agent. The addition of high-melting-point alcohols to the wax to optimize its performance was investigated. Such alcohols were prepared by the hydrolyzation of rice bran wax or carnauba wax. These alcohols had melting points of ～80°C, higher than that of rice bran wax, and consisted of hydrocarbons with alkyl chain lengths ranging from C24 to C34, much longer than the alkyl chains found in commercially available higher alcohols. Oil gel made with only rice bran wax as a solidifying agent has lower hardness than the conventional hydrocarbon wax gel, too low for practical usage in stick cosmetics such as lipsticks and lip creams. Blending high-melting-point alcohols with rice bran wax at 10–20% led to marked increase in gel hardness, equivalent to the gel hardness of the hydrocarbon wax. This effect on rice bran wax was not observed in commercially available higher alcohols and esters with lower melting points. Based upon the change in microstructure observed with SEM, the improved gel hardness of the rice bran wax upon addition of high-melting-point alcohols was probably induced by the disappearance of spherical clusters, originally presented in the gel, resulting in close to uniform morphology.
The present study revealed the optimization of nanoemulsion containing palm oil derivatives and Parthenium hysterophorus L. crude extract (PHCE) as pre-emergence herbicide formulation against Diodia ocimifolia. The nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by high energy emulsification method, and it was optimized by mixture experimental design (MED). From the optimization process, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a fit quadratic polynomial model with an optimal formulation composition containing 30.91% of palm kernel oil ester (PKOE), 28.48% of mixed surfactants (Tensiofix and Tween 80, 8:2), 28.32% of water and 12.29% of PHCE. The reading of both experimental and predicted particle size in the verification experiment were acceptable with a residual standard error (RSE) was less than 2%. Under the optimal condition, the smallest particle size obtained was 140.10 nm, and the particle was shown by morphology analysis to be spherical and demonstrated good stability (no phase separation) under centrifugation and different storage conditions (25 ± 5°C and 45°C). Nanoemulsion stored for 60 days exhibits monodisperse emulsion with a slight increase of particle size. The increase in particle size over time might have contributed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon which is shown by a linear graph from Ostwald ripening rate analysis. In the in vitro germination test, P. hysterophorus nanoemulsion (PHNE) was shown to cause total inhibition of D. ocimifolia seed at lower concentration (5 g L–1) as compared to PHCE (10 g L–1). The finding of the research could potentially serve as a platform for the development of palm oil based formulation containing plant crude extract for green weed management.
1,2-Alkanediol exhibits antibacterial activity against several bacteria and yeast. However, few studies have reported antimicrobial tests on skin microbiome. Bacterial microbiome on the skin surface include Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which causes rough skin and inflammation in atopic dermatitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), which enhances innate immunity. In this study, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated for 1,2-alkanediol comprising 4–12 carbon atoms against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. 1,2-Alkanediol comprising 6–12 carbon atoms exhibited antimicrobial activity against both species of Staphylococcus. The antibacterial activity depended on the alkyl chain length. In addition, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) on agar was evaluated for 1,2-alkanediol comprising 6–12 carbon atoms. 1,2-Octanediol and 1,2-decanediol exhibited significant bactericidal activity.
γ-Oryzanol is a naturally occurring component of rice bran and consists of various steryl ferulates. The antioxidant activities of γ-oryzanol have mostly been demonstrated in cell-free systems. Therefore, we determined whether steryl ferulate of γ-oryzanol suppress spontaneous intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell-based systems. We found that cycloartenyl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate suppressed spontaneous intracellular ROS in a similar way to N-acetylcysteine and α-tocopherol.
In order to reveal changes in fatty acids and triglycerides during the pickling process of white-fleshed and dark-fleshed fish with high-fat, to compare the changes of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids (FAs) in round scad (Decapterus maruadsi, dark-fleshed) and hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus, white-fleshed) during salt-dried processing, ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques were used to quantify. Lipid oxidation was evaluated via peroxide values (POVs), and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). A total of 31 and 27 FAs, 45 and 44 TAGs were quantified in round scad and hairtail, respectively. DHA (C22:6n3), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1n9) were the main FAs in round scad. POO (16:0/18:1/18:1), PPO (16:0/16:0/18:1), POD (16:0/18:1/22:6), and PPaO (16:0/16:1/18:1) were dominant TAGs in both species. Salt-dried processing significantly affected (p < 0.001) 7/5 FAs and 24/29 TAGs in round scad/hairtail. MUFAs changed significantly (p < 0.05) in dark-fleshed round scad; only SFAs and PUFAs changed in white-fleshed hairtail. Both species exhibited near-identical TAG compositions with different variation trends. More significant changes were observed in FAs at the half-dried stages and in TAGs (p < 0.05) at the salted stage. This coincided with the changing stages of POV and TBARS values that also increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the salted stages but peaked at the half-dried stages of both species.
The possibility of improving brain function coupled with its preferential uptake in the brain has garnered attention for docosahexaenoic acid-bound lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC). However, studies focusing on the health benefits of dietary DHA-LPC are lacking. We prepared a dietary oil rich in DHA-LPC (DHA-LPC rich oil) via enzymatic modification of phospholipids (PL) extracted from squid (Todarodes pacificus) meal and purification of active carbon, ion exchange resin, and silica gel. We then examined the effects of dietary DHA-LPC rich oil on male Wistar rats by evaluating serum and liver lipid profiles, fatty acid (FA) metabolizing enzyme activity, and the FA composition of serum and brain. The rats were fed a basal diet containing either soybean oil alone (7%) or soybean oil (4.5%) with DHA-LPC rich oil (2.5%) for 28 days, and then evaluated. The rats fed the diet containing DHA-LPC rich oil showed reduced triacylglycerol concentration due, in part, to the enhancement of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA oxidase activities and suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver. Moreover, the dietary DHA-LPC rich oil moderately increased DHA in the FA composition of the rat hippocampus, which may be due to elevated DHA composition in serum LPC. These results suggest that DHA-LPC rich oil has hypolipidemic effect and moderate increase in hippocampal DHA amount in normal rats.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a cutaneous condition characterized by itchy, swollen, and dry skin, which is mediated by T helper cell-related cytokines. β-Carotene, a natural red pigment found in plants, exhibits antioxidant activity that has been shown to promote an inflammatory response. Because it is not clear whether β-carotene suppresses inflammation in AD skin tissues, we examined the effects of oral administration of β-carotene in mice induced by a low zinc/magnesium diet (HR-AD diet). Our studies found that AD-like inflammation was remarkably reduced by β-carotene. In addition, β-carotene significantly suppressed protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1 and mRNA expression of TSLP, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and Par-2 in AD-like skin tissues. It was also found that mRNA and protein expression of filaggrin (a major structural protein in epidermis) in AD-like skin was significantly elevated by β-carotene administration. Furthermore, β-carotene treatment significantly reduced the activity and/or mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), degradation of the extracellular matrix and regulation of chemokines. These results suggest that β-carotene reduces skin inflammation through the suppressed expression of inflammatory factors or the activity of MMPs as well as the promotion of filaggrin expression in AD-like skin. β-Carotene is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which improves AD-like skin by enhancing the skin barrier function.
Refined palm-pressed mesocarp fibre oil (PPFO), which can be obtained from one of the by-products of palm oil milling, palm-pressed mesocarp fibre, is categorized as palm sludge oil. So far, it has been given less attention and underutilized until some recent scientific reports revealing its high content of phytonutrients, carotenoids and vitamin E, which have been proven scientifically to possess anti-oxidant activity. The study evaluated the stability of PPFO as a carrier for plant-based emulsion. PPFO was extracted and examined for its positional distribution of fatty acids, saturation levels and iodine value (IV) using NMR spectroscopy. The PPFO-based emulsion was then prepared and subjected to stability tests, including temperature variation, centrifuge test, cycle test, pH and slip melting point for 28 days. Phase separation was observed from PPFO-based emulsion stored at 40℃ from day-21 onwards while no creaming found in all the palm olein-based emulsions stored at the three storage temperatures. Nevertheless, results indicated that the PPFO-based emulsion passed all the tests above showing insignificant phase separation (p > 0.05) compared with those of palm olein commonly used in emulsion preparation. The findings suggested that PPFO enriched with valuable phytonutrients could be used as an alternative carrier oil in emulsion formulation, which is an important component in personal care products.