Defatted rice bran meal is an important source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates for potential application in various food products. Attempt has been made to increase the protein solubility by physical means like microwave digestion as well as by microwave digestion followed by homogenization. Simple 40 sec microwave treatment could give the protein recovery of 78.4% as against 28.9% after 1 min of conventional boiling and 40 sec is taken as optimum time for microwave treatment. The protein recovery is further increased by microwave treatment followed by homogenization. Defatted rice bran meal has also been treated with enzyme papain and viscozyme separately to increase the protein solubility. The yield of protein isolate (RPI), prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation is 10.2%, which is further increased to 14.5 & 22.4% by papain, viscozyme modification and 21.1 & 22.3% by microwave treatment and microwave treatment followed by homogenization respectively. A maximum of 82.5 and 82.6% protein has been recovered as soluble protein from de-oiled bran by viscozyme treatment and by 40 sec microwave treatment followed by 10 min of homogenization. So, microwave treatment along with homogenization is a suitable alternative processes in extracting protein from rice bran meal.
A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm–1, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm–1. The level of absorbance at 77 cm–1 correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm–1. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J. scopulorum by varying DT. This study can be used as a reference paper for comparing results of reports where different lengths of the DT were used.
The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements.
We discuss the calcination-free liftoff photolithography of inorganic phosphor films consisting of two kinds of rare-earth-ion-doped (RE) nanoparticles dip-coated onto plastic sheets. Green and red upconversion luminescence were emitted from the RE-nanoparticles prepared from Y2O3 nanoparticles doped with 1 mol% Er3+ and 0.75 mol% Yb3+ (RE-1-nanoparticles) and those doped with 3 mol% Er3+ and 7 mol% Yb3+ (RE-2-nanoparticles), respectively. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence was also observed in the RE-1- and RE-2-nanoparticles. The visible transmittance of the RE-nanoparticle films was more than 90%. The intensity ratio of the green to red upconversion luminescence was controlled by adjusting the mixing ratio of the RE-1- and RE-2-nanoparticles. These results indicate that the multicolor-emitting devices can be fabricated easily for applications of flexible inorganic phosphor films to displays, emitting devices, and sensors with long operating lifetimes and resistance to UV light, air, and water.
Water induced microstructure transitions of diglycerol monolaurate (C12G2) reverse micelles in aromatic liquid ethylbenzene have been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheometry. The SAXS data have been evaluated by generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) and geometrical model fittings. We found that the C12G2 spontaneously self-assembles into ellipsoidal prolate micelles in ethylbenzene under ambient conditions. The maximum diameter of the micellar core is ca. 5.0 nm. We noted that 5% C12G2/ethylbenzene solubilize 0.8% water and the water causes micellar growth; micellar size is ~ 3 times bigger than the empty micelles. Rheology data showed that viscosity of 5% C12G2/ethylbenzene increases with increase in the water concentration sustaining the SAXS results that the viscosity increase is caused due to micellar growth. We found that increase in temperature of the water incorporated system decreases micellar size, which is equivalent to a rod-to-sphere type transition. The water induced microstructure transformations can be explained in terms of critical packing parameter, cpp. Water hydrates hydrophilic headgroup of surfactant so that effective cross-sectional area of surfactant increases. As a result the cpp decreases and micelles grow. On the other hand, increasing temperature promotes interpenetration of solvent and surfactant chain as a result cpp increases due to decrease in the effective cross-sectional area of surfactant. Moreover dehydration may occur and micelles with more curved interface are formed due to increases in the cpp.
The methanol extract of Morus australis (shimaguwa) acts as a whitening agent due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. In order to explore the mechanism(s) of the whitening action, constituents of the 95% methanol extract from the dried stems of shimaguwa were isolated and their skin-whitening capacity was examined. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol soluble extract of shimaguwa led to the isolation of 2, 4, 2’, 4’-hydroxycalcone (chalcone 1) and three analogues of chalcone 1 with 3’-substituted resorcinol moieties (chalcones 2-4). Chalcone derivative 4 proved to be a novel compound and was fully characterized. Chalcones 1-4 were evaluated for inhibition activity on mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine as the substrate. The parent chalcone 1 was a highly effective inhibitor of tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.21 μM) compared to arbutin (IC50 = 164 μM). Compared to chalcone 1, chalcones 2 and 3, which possess 3’-substituted isoprenyl or bulky 2-benzoylbiphenyl, showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity, while chalcone 4, possessing 3’-substituted 2-hydroxy-1-pentene group, showed slightly increased activity. The effects of chalcones 1-4 on melanin synthesis, without affecting cell growth, were assayed in melanin-producing B16 murine melanoma cells. Chalcone 3 significantly reduced cell viability before reaching the IC50 value for melanin synthesis. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of chalcones 1, 2 and 4 were more than 100-fold greater than that of arbutin, with little or no cytotoxicity. More significantly, chalcone 2, which exhibited less tyrosinase inhibitory activity compared to the parent chalcone 1, showed the highest inhibition of melanin synthesis in B16 cells among the chalcones tested. Accordingly, chalcones 1 and 2, and the novel chalcone 4 might be the active components responsible for the whitening ability of shimaguwa. Moreover, whitening ability was not exclusively due to tyrosinase inhibition.
The volume of waste fiber has increased rapidly in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue. In this study, therefore, we attempted to convert waste fiber to carbonaceous materials by carbonization and investigated the basic properties of the resulting carbonized fibers. The results demonstrated that pores tend to form and specific surface areas change substantially, depending on the carbonization conditions. The carbonization conditions resulting in the largest specific surface areas included a temperature increase and retention times of 2 h. Carbonization temperatures resulting in the maximum values of 1000°C were 900–1000°C for wool and 1000°C for both polyester and cotton. In particular, the specific surface area of cotton after carbonization at 1000°C was 1253 m2/g, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that cotton retained its fibrous form after carbonization. Thus, it is possible to inexpensively convert waste fibers to carbonaceous material by carbonization. The results indicate that for cotton fiber in particular, the practical application of this process to the production of low-cost fibrous activated carbon would be possible, since cotton fiber retains its fibrous form under carbonization.