Sulfosuccinate type anionic surfactants have been the workhorse surfactants as mild cleanser. Sulfosuccinates makeup around 49% of all anionic surfactants. Sulfosuccinates are the sodium salts of alkyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid. These surfactants having two long lipophile chains are similar to the alkyl sulfonates. In general, sulfosuccinate surfactants have been used in the cosmetic industry to improve the mildness of personal care products. This paper attempts to review the chemistry, types, synthesis, properties and distinguishing features of sulfosuccinates. The various applications of sulfosuccinate type anionic surfactants have also been discussed in detail.
We previously reported that 50% of the browning of frying oil in food manufacturing was due to thermal deterioration of the oil itself and the rest was most probably due to reactions involving amino acids in juice exuded from frying foodstuffs. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that amino acids are released in 20 h from foodstuffs into oil heated at 180°C in an amount sufficient to brown the oil to Gardner color (G)>10. The amount of juice exuded during deep-frying of foods was determined, and then heating conditions in a microwave oven that exude the same amount of juice from foodstuffs as in deep-frying were chosen. Juice thus prepared was defatted, and substances of molecular weights (MW) over 3000 were centrifuged out through a membrane filter. Free amino acids in the filtrate were quantified by HPLC. With the obtained amino acid contents of foodstuffs, it was calculated that some kilograms of pork, beef, or chicken, or some hundreds of grams of shrimp or scallops would exude enough amino acids to brown 1 L oil to G>10 at 180°C in 20 h. Next, fresh virgin oil was heated at 180°C for 20 h with powder prepared from the juice by freeze-drying. The color scores of oil (1 L) with added powder from about 1 kg or more of pork or chicken reached G>10. This finding means that amino acids exuded from amounts of pork or chicken easily possible to fry in practice without addition of fresh oil were sufficient to cause browning. It was demonstrated that amino acids exuded from frying foodstuffs were responsible for frying oil browning, regardless of batter coatings on the foodstuffs.
Long-used frying oil may pose health risks. In the last few decades, consumption of commercially deep-fried foods has increased drastically, thus drawing attention to the thermal deterioration of the frying oil used in their preparation. The purpose of this study was to collect basic information about deteriorated frying oil ingested through foods. We analyzed the acid value (AV), carbonyl value (COV), contents of polar compounds (PC) and triacylglycerol (TG) and Gardner color in oils used in the kitchen of a campus restaurant and in oils contained in batter coatings of commercially deep-fried foods purchased randomly in Kobe, Japan. The results of the restaurant investigation indicated that the properties of frying oil were almost within the safe limit when one batch of oil was used at 180°C for 3 hours a day for 5 consecutive days. Among oils extracted from the batter coatings, 4-22% samples, depending on the analytical items, showed properties worse than those of oil recovered from food manufacturing companies after use. It seems that deep-fried foods containing deteriorated frying oil were produced on some occasions but not others by certain companies and that deep-fried foods were sometimes prepared with long-used thermally deteriorated oil. Thus, to ensure the safety of deep-fried foods, measures should be taken to shorten the usage span of frying oil.
We reported the quantification method for the triglyceride (TG) molecular species in fish oil using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet detector (UV) system with isocratic elution. However, the system spent much time for one run and TG molecular species in fish oil consisting of saturated and/or monounsaturated fatty acids, such as triolein, could not be quantified because those hardly absorb UV. Consequently, the improved method using tandem jointed HPLC-UV-evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) system with gradient elution was developed. The quantification was carried out with internal standard method and the respective calibration curves for TG molecular species were calculated with chromatogram area ratio between internal standard and TG molecular species versus amount ratio between them. As the results, the second order calibration curves were acquired and all the coefficient of correlations for the calibration curves were higher than 0.99. Several kinds of TG molecular species in bigeye tuna body oil were quantified. The results by UV and ELSD were almost the same for all TG molecular species. In contrast, the results of the chromatogram area percent by UV and ELSD, historically used method for the indication of absolute content of TG molecular species in oil, were completely different. This method would play an important role for the clarification of the nutritional function of fish oil from the TG molecular structure perspectives.
In this study, the authors produced self-aggregates of highly hydrophobic phospholipid polymers consisting of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and stearyl methacrylate (SMA). MPC/SMA copolymers (PMS) self aggregated in a solvent consisting of 1-propanol and water (in 1:4 (w/w)). When alcohols other than 1-propanol were used, no homogeneous self-aggregate solution was obtained. The average diameter of PMS self-aggregates varied from 10 to 40 nm depending on the MPC content in PMS. The PMS self-aggregate was stable, and the diameter showed no changes even when the solution was stored at 60°C or 4°C for 3 months. The PMS showed high solubilization ability and solubilized hydrophobic compounds, such as tocopherol acetate and coenzyme Q10, in aqueous solutions. PMS that contained 50 unit mol% of SMA (PMS5050) showed the highest solubilization ability among PMS of different SMA contents. In spite of the high solubilization ability, PMS self-aggregates showed low surface activity and almost no cytotoxicity, showing that the PMS self-aggregates are promising biocompatible solubilizer.
In this study, the effect of polyoxyethylene (POE)/polyoxypropylene (POP) dimethylethers [EPDMEs] with various molecular weights and polarities on self-organizing structures of pentaethyleneglycol dodecylether (C12E5) was investigated. The investigation on micelle formation of C12E5 in EPDME aqueous solutions showed that  EPDME disturbed the micelle formation of C12E5,  the micelle formation was also disturbed more strongly with the increase of temperature, and  the surface tension of solution became low in spite of the decrease of the amount of adsorption of C12E5 with the increase of the concentration of EPDME. The result of measuring the cloud points of C12E5 in EPDME solutions unveiled that the cloud points became remarkably higher at high EPDME concentration, suggesting that the rise of the cloud points in EPDME solutions might be caused by the decrease of the aggregation number of C12E5. Moreover, it was speculated that C12E5 and EPDME might aggregate partially and form mixed micelles, since the cloud points of their mixture appeared beyond 50 °C. Liquid paraffin could be solubilized at a specific temperature above the could point of C12E5 in 27wt% EPDME (17/4) aqueous solution. It was speculated that  a special micelle containing oil might be formed when the cohesive force of the hydrophobic groups of C12E5 increased by solubilizing liquid paraffin,  EPDME distributed to the hydrophilic chain of C12E5, and  the curvature of the interfacial film became positive. Therefore, as described in the previous study, EPDME functions as a hydrophilic co-surfactant when the concentrations of both EPDME and polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants are high, because EPDME may probably distribute on the polyoxyethylene chain of the surfactant. A microemulsion can be formed in a wide temperature range by preventing the aggregation of nonionic surfactants with the increase of temperature.
X-ray crystallographic analysis has been used to determine the structure of the nematic liquid crystal, 4,4’-dimethoxy-2,2’-dihydroxybenzalazine (1). Benzalazine (1) is centrosymmetric, with two benzene rings that are almost coplanar with the azine bridge. Two intramolecular hydrogen bonds are observed between the OH group and nitrogen atom of the azine bridge, while two intermolecular interactions are observed for CH… π and CH… O. Benzalazine (1) produced emission bands at 506 and 537 nm in the solid state when excited at 430 nm.