Journal of Oleo Science
Online ISSN : 1347-3352
Print ISSN : 1345-8957
ISSN-L : 1345-8957
Volume 57 , Issue 7
Showing 1-7 articles out of 7 articles from the selected issue
Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  • Masahiro Nakao, Motoo Sumida, Kenji Katano, Harukazu Fukami
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 7 Pages 371-374
    Published: 2008
    Released: June 07, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined the enzymatic synthesis of astaxanthin n-octanoic acid esters. Carriers for the immobilized enzyme and reaction conditions such as water content, reaction temperature, and time were examined using Candida cylindracea lipase (Lipase OF®). Lipase OF® immobilized by a hydrophobic anion exchange resin (10% w/w content of lipase) gave the best yield in the esterification reaction of astaxanthin. Two milligrams of astaxanthin per 750 μL tri-n-octanoin (ca. 0.3%) was optimum because of the low solubility of tri-n-octanoin. The esters were obtained in a yield of 36.4% under the optimal reaction conditions.
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  • Takemasa Matsuo, Takashi Kobayashi, Yukitaka Kimura, Asao Hosoda, Hisa ...
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 7 Pages 375-380
    Published: 2008
    Released: June 07, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Glyceryl ferulate was synthesized through condensation of ferulic acid and glycerol at 50°C in glycerols with different water contents using an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica in a batch reactor, and condensation in the glycerol with a 7.5% (w/w) water content was shown to be the favorite. The solubility of ferulic acid was higher at higher temperature in glycerol with a lower water content. The viscosity was lower at higher temperature for the glycerol with a higher water content. The condensation was carried out using a batch reactor at a temperature from 50°C to 90°C. These observations indicated that the condensation at 80°C in the glycerol with a 7.5% (w/w) water content was the most adequate for continuously synthesizing glyceryl ferulate. A reactor system was constructed for the continuous synthesis and was steadily operated to realize a productivity of 430 kg/(m3-reactor(day) without any decrease in the conversion for at least 6 days.
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  • Masayoshi Hisama, Sanae Matsuda, Tomomi Tanaka, Hiroharu Shibayama, Ma ...
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 7 Pages 381-390
    Published: 2008
    Released: June 07, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Four types of phytoncide solution (A-Type, AB-Type, D-Type and G-Type) were evaluated as antimutagenic agents with suppressive effects on the SOS-inducing activity of the mutagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide (furylfuramide) using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test. The A-Type, AB-Type, D-Type and G-Type of phytoncide solution suppressed the SOS-inducing activity on furylfuramide at a concentration of 100 μg/mL by 86.1%, 74.7%, 69.5% and 55.4%, respectively, and the ID50 (50% inhibitory dose) values were 9.0 μg/mL, 22.5 μg/mL, 36.0 μg/mL and 72.8 μg/mL. They also showed the suppression of SOS-inducing activity against other chemical mutagens, such as 4-nitroquinolin 1-oxide (4NQO) and N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), which do not require liver metabolizing enzymes, and against 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which require these enzymes, and against UV irradiation, which is a well known physical mutagen. In the search for the component-activity relationship, the A-Type of phutoncide solution suppressed the SOS-inducing activity greater than the other types of phutoncide solution for furylfuramide, 4NQO and MNNG. However, in case of 2AA and Trp-P-1, the D-Type of phytoncide solution was most effective in suppressing the SOS-inducing activity in the umu test. From these results, the four types of phytoncide solutions showed the suppressive effect of SOS-inducing activity against chemical and physical mutagens.
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Chemistry and Organic Synthesis
  • Naohito Kawasaki, Fumihiko Ogata, Isao Yamaguchi, Atsushi Fujii
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 7 Pages 391-396
    Published: 2008
    Released: June 07, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To prevent formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water, removing precursors of trihalomethanes (PTHMs) in water resources for tap water is essential. We compared the following three treatments for removal of PTHMs: activated carbon (AC), ozone (OZ) and ozone-activated carbon combination (OZAC). Orange II (OR, an acidic dye), methylene blue (MB, a basic dye) and humic acid (HA) were used as PTHMs. HA exists abundantly as PTHM in nature. Results demonstrated that PTHMs could be decomposed or removed by either AC or OZ treatment. Efficiency of removal of HA by the three treatment methods was lower than that for removal of OR and MB, as the molecules of HA were larger than those of OR and MB. Decreases of total organic carbon values were achieved by treatment of MB with OZ or HA with AC. As for advanced water treatment, a two-step sequential process of OZ-AC treatments is currently used. However, the present results demonstrated that highly efficient removal of PTHMs could be accomplished by the addition of AC during OZ treatment.
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