The fish, namely Bhola bhetki (Nibea soldado) was examined for lipid composition of its specific organs. The fish had a much higher lipid content in brain in comparison with its other organ while the muscle and digestive tract had nearly equal amount of total lipids. Cholesterol content in lipid part of various organs was significantly high in Bhola (Nibea sp.) while the phospholipid content was low. Fatty acid compositions of eye and digestive tract of Nibea soldado were richer in variety than those of muscle and brain. The total saturated and poly unsaturated acids were more or less equal in muscle and brain lipid. The total monounsaturated fatty acids are more or less same in the muscle, brain and eye. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) is very high in all the organs. Arachidonic acid (C20:4) is also present in considerable amount in brain, eye and digestive tract. The variation of cholesterol, phospholipid and fatty acid composition in fish organs would be beneficial for human consumption from health point of view.
Two novel sulfate-type fluoro-hybrid anionic surfactants with a bezene ring in their molecules, F8H3OS and F6H5OS, were synthesized and their solution properties were investigated. Both of the hybrid surfactants were found to show an outstanding surface and interfacial tension lowering ability. F8H3OS formed compact micelles with small aggregation numbers and the micelles coagulated with increase in the surfactant concentration, while F6H5OS formed micelles at its low concentration and the micelles were transformed into vesicles at high concentrations of the surfactant.
Examination of the effects of polyols and sugars on phase transition in polyglycerin fatty acid esters (PGE) was made by dynamic viscoelasticity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing microscopy and visual observation. Isotropic - liquid crystal transition temperature (TCI) increased with glycerin (Gly) and glucose (Glc) application and TCI together with propylene glycol (Pg) caused temperature to decrease. Sorbitol (Srt) and sucrose (Scr) brought about a slight rise of TCI. The sol - gel transition temperature (TSG) in the presence of Gly, Pg and Scr, was less than TCI. TCI of PGE is considered to depend on hydrogen bonding between PGE and polyols or sugars and TSG of PGE, on affinity between PGE and polyols or sugars. In the presence of Gly, Srt, Glc and Scr, solubilization was observed visually. TSG determined with DSC was essentially the same as by dynamic viscoelasticity thought determination by the latter was more definitive compared to that by the former.
Spiculisporic acid (a biosurfactant produced by Penicillium spiculisporum) is used in the preparation of detergents, gelation agents, coloring agents for concrete, vesicle forming agents, etc. The effects of biosurfactant and synthetic surfactants (SDS and LAS) were assessed for the first time in this study at the genomic level by yeast DNA microarray bioassay. Hierarchical clustering showed spiculisporic acid to be close to LAS and SDS. The effects of spiculisporic acid on yeast cells would thus appear basically the same as those of LAS and SDS. Gene induction by spiculisporic acid was particularly remarkable in functional categories of “metabolism”, while “cell rescue defense and virulence” and “energy” categories differed from those with SDS and LAS. Thus, spiculisporic acid and SDS might be metabolized via beta-oxidation in two different organelles, mitocondria and peroxisome, respectively. This would explain the low oxidative stress with spiculisporic acid, versus the high oxidative stress with SDS.
The core lipids from five strains of the order Thermoplasmales grown at various temperatures have been investigated. The major core lipid of the cell membrane in these strains was caldarchaeol (2, 2′, 3, 3′-tetra-O-di(biphytanyl)-sn-diglycerol). Five types of molecular species of the C40 isoprenoid chains having different numbers of cyclopentane rings were detected in caldarchaeol. In the strains of the genus Picrophilus, a novel molecular species of the C40 isoprenoid chain, being a C40-bicyclic isomer, was detected. An increasing degree of cyclization depending on the rising growth temperatures was observed in all the strains examined.
High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of enantiomeric 1,2- and 2,3-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerols was performed on two different stationary phases of opposite configurations: N-(S)-1-(α-naphthyl)ethylaminocarbonyl-(S)-tert-leucine and N-(R)-1-(α-naphthyl)ethylaminocarbonyl-(R)-tert-leucine. This caused a reversal in the order of enantiomer elution. The isopropylideneglycerols were chromatographed as 3,5-dinitrophenylurethane derivatives. Complete enantiomer resolution, which permitted an accurate estimation of the optical purity of each enantiomer, was easily achieved on both columns (each 25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d.) within 15 min after an injection by an isocratic elution with hexane/dichloromethane/ethanol (40:12:3, by vol) as the mobile phase. The formations of diastereomeric π-π donor-accepter interaction, hydrogen bonding association, and dipole-dipole stacking between the solutes and the chiral stationary phases were considered as contributing factors to enantiomer resolution. Under optimal conditions, the optical purities of several commercially available 1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerol enantiomers were successfully determined in this study. The new method used in this study demonstrates that chiral phase high-performance liquid chromatography provides effective resolution, identification, and quantitation of synthetic 1,2- and 2,3-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerol enantiomers.
The issue of purity of the edible oils is becoming increasingly important in the food industry. Many branded oil products are being sold at a premium price on the basis of their purity and quality, or on the basis of their health-boosting effects. Undue financial advantage is also taken by deliberately mislabeling or adulterating the oils and presenting them as quality products in the market. In the present paper a new, very simple, rapid, reliable and highly economical qualitative technique is being reported. By means of this test, adulteration of rice bran oil in other oils can be detected within one minute. A small quantity of alkaline solution of suspected oil sample when treated with small quantity of benzenediazonium chloride solution at 0-5°C followed by shaking of the mixture, a brilliant orange-red colour of 5-phenylazo-γ -oryzanol or 5-phenylazoferulic acid (which is indeed a dye material) develops within the next few seconds indicating the presence of rice bran oil adulteration in the test sample. Upto 2.5% rice bran oil adulteration can be detected with this new technique.