Deodorizer distillates are waste products of edible oil processing industries obtained during deodorization process of vegetable oils. It is very cheap source of several health beneficial components such as tocopherols, sterols, squalene as well as free fatty acids which have numerous industrial applications. These valuable components are being used in different foods, pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. Traditional sources of these useful components are vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables and nuts. Global need of these important components has been exceeded than their availability. The deodorizer distillates of various vegetable oils are considered to be a rich source of several valuable components. Present review will cover brief introduction of common processing stages involved in all vegetable oil processing, analytical methods for characterization of deodorizer distillates by instrumental techniques, importance and commercial value of deodorizer distillates. Future prospective of current field may leads to cost efficient processes and increased attention on the nutritional quality of deodorized oil and commercial applications of deodorizer distillates as well as their valuable components.
Crystallization behavior of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in the absence and presence of ultrasonic treatment under a temperature gradient field was investigated. The effects of ultrasonic parameters on the crystallization behavior of VCO were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry and polarized light microscopy. The thermal effect of the ultrasonic treatment was also increased at higher power levels. Therefore, the optimal power level was determined at approximately 36 W. Induction time reduced evidently and the crystallization rate was accelerated under ultrasonic treatment at crystallization temperature (Tc) above 15°C. However, no significant difference in induction time was noted at 13°C. The result of morphological studies showed that the growth mechanism of crystals was significantly changed. Meanwhile, smaller and uniform crystals were produced by the ultrasonic treatment. This study shows a novel technique to accelerate the crystallization rate and alter the growth mechanism of VCO crystals.
The absolute amount of triacylglycerol (TAG) positional isomers was analyzed in rat milk fat, a representative of non-ruminant milk fat, using a HPLC-UV-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS system equipped with an octacosyl silylation column or polymeric ODS column. TAGs consisting of two oleic acids (O) and one palmitic acid (P) were the most abundant. In particular, β-OPO, a TAG binding P at the β-position (sn-2) and two Os at the α-positions (sn-1/3), was prominent. The β-OPO content decreased over time, while a TAG consisting of two Ps and one capric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, increased. TAGs consisting of two Ps and one docosahexaenoic acid were present in small amounts and decreased with time. These results indicated that the recombination of fatty acids in TAGs in milk fat occurs in the mother, and is thought to depend on the infant’s stage of growth, in response to their nutritional needs. It was also demonstrated that medium-chain fatty acids were mainly located at the α-position (sn-3), while Ps were mainly located at the β-position (sn-2). Therefore, the combination and binding positions of fatty acids of TAG are considered very important in infant nutrition.
Amidoamine derivative C18AA forms a highly viscous oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, called an “emulsion gel.” Previously, it was showed that the viscosity sensitively changes with the C18AA concentration, temperature, pH changes, and salt addition. In this work, C18AA concentration in the continuous aqueous phase ([C18AA]w) was investigated at different compositions, and it was found that a threshold concentration value of 16.5 wt% was required to obtain a highly viscous emulsion gel below 45°C. C18AA formed micellar networks in the aqueous phase, and stimuli or additives increase the value of [C18AA]w, so that the C18AA micellar network could grow in the continuous aqueous phase.
Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a representative anionic surfactant, is well-known to induce rough skin following single or multiple topical applications. The mechanism by which SLS induces rough skin is thought to result from the disruption of skin moisture function consisting of NMF and epidermal lipids. However, a recent study demonstrated that topically applied SLS easily penetrates into the living cell layers of the epidermis, which suggests that physiological alterations of keratinocytes might cause the SLS-induced rough skin. This study was conducted to clarify the effects of SLS on keratinocytes to demonstrate the contribution of SLS to the induction of rough skin. In addition, the potentials of other widely used anionic surfactants to induce rough skin were evaluated. HaCaT keratinocytes treated with SLS had increased levels of intracellular ROS and IL-1α secretion. Application of SLS on the surface of a reconstructed epidermal equivalent also showed the increased generation of ROS. Further, SLS-treated cells showed an increase of intracellular calpain activity associated with the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The increase of intracellular ROS was abolished by the addition of BAPTA-AM, a specific chelator of Ca2+. In addition, IL-1α also stimulated ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. An ESR spin-labeling study demonstrated that SLS increased the fluidity of membranes of liposomes and cells. Together, those results indicate that SLS initially interacts with cell membranes, which results in the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+ stimulates the secretion of IL-1α due to the activation of calpain, and also increases ROS generation. IL-1α also stimulates ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. We conclude from these results that the elevation of intracellular ROS levels is one of the causes of SLS-induced rough skin. Finally, among the other anionic surfactants tested, sodium lauryl phosphate has less potential to induce rough skin because of its lower generation of ROS.
The technology of physicochemical surface modification is available for enhancing the bioactivity and osseointegration capability of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP). Hydrophobicity index and electrical charge play important roles in protein adsorption. We previously studied the mechanism underlying the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces of dental materials and hydroxyapatite in vitro. The aim of the present study was to clarify the correlation among the adsorption of BSA to TZP and physicochemically modified TZP surfaces and the zeta potential of BSA and TZP. We used TZP that was sintered at 1350°C for 2 h in air because this kind of TZP is widely applied in the field of dentistry. Surface physicochemistry was modified with ultraviolet light (UV) and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The zeta potentials were measured with ELSZ-1000 and ELSZ-2000 analyzers (Otsuka Electronics, Hirakata, Japan). All experiments were conducted in 10 mM NaCl (pH 7.0). The zeta potentials of as-received TZP and BSA were negative, but those of UV- and plasma-treated TZP were positive. The reason the zeta potentials of TZP changed positive by physicochemical modification is due to an increase in the amount of basic hydroxyl groups. The zeta potentials of UV- and plasma-treated TZP after BSA adsorption were negative. These results suggested that electrostatic interactions play an important role in BSA adsorption to TZP and modified TZP surfaces, so that this modified surface may control the adsorption of protein.
A novel lipid nanocapsule with high physical stability and the ability to undergo a water-responsive morphological change was prepared using a facile method from inexpensive and simple materials such as a glycylglycine-containing lipid and zinc acetate. The zinc-coordinated nanocapsule is comprised of solid bilayer membranes, which are stabilized by polyglycine-II type hydrogen-bond network and Zn-lipid coordination resulting in a high thermal stability in the dry state. The nanocapsules can easily encapsulate guest molecules such as methylene blue in the hollow space by dissolving the molecules in ethanol during preparation. When placed in an aqueous environment, the nanocapsules showed distinctive morphological changes and subsequent release of the methylene blue.
Docosapentaenoic acids (DPAs) are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that exist as two major structural isomers: n-3 DPA and n-6 DPA. n-3 DPA is found in seal meat, salmon and abalone, and n-6 DPA is found in several marine microbial oil. We investigated the bioconversion of n-3 and n-6 DPAs in three different human cell lines, Caco-2, HepG2, and THP-1. n-3 DPA was converted to docosahexaenoic acid only in HepG2 cells. In contrast, retro-conversion to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was observed in all three cell lines. n-6 DPA was also retro-converted to arachidonic acid (AA) in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. EPA and AA were particularly elevated in Caco-2 cells, compared to HepG2 cells. Further, the retro-conversion of n-3 DPA led to a greater increase of EPA in the phospholipid fraction than in the neutral lipid fraction.
A series of novel fatty substituted 4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (coumarins) were synthesized by employing cross metathesis, a key step in the synthesis. The antioxidant activities of the title compounds were compared with the commercial antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol, glycosidic and other substituted 4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones. Among the different 4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones, the glycosidic substituted 4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones was excellent, while those with aliphatic fatty acid chain and hydroxyl substitutents were good. Among the substituted 4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones, glycosidic, hydroxyl and cyano containing 4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones exhibited good, while fatty substituted exhibited moderate anticancer activities against the four different cancer cell lines tested, namely DU145 (Prostate carcinoma cancer cell), HepG2 (Hepato cellular carcinoma cancer cell), SKOV3 (Ovarian cancer cell) and MDA-MB 231 (Human breast cancer cell). The study reveals that these substituted coumarins can be potential candidates in a number of food and pharmaceutical formulations.
Aroma profile, oxidative stability and quality parameters of virgin olive oil from four cultivars (Chemlali, Chetoui, Koroneiki and Rjim), grown in Rjim Maatoug oasis in southern of Tunisia, were studied for the first time. The olive oil samples were obtained during maturation from a crop season (2012–2013). The results showed the quality parameters, i.e., free fatty acid, UV absorbance at 232 and 270 nm, increases during maturation exceeding the upper limit established by the IOOC norm. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments tended to decrease during ripening stages. The trend of oxidative stability, total phenols and Odiphenols exhibited a reduction of antioxidant activity at more advanced stages of maturity. The marks achieved showed that oil quality degradation is due to the great drought of climate: high temperature, high light intensity and low rainfall. Studied aroma profiles of cultivars were also influenced by severe climatic conditions. Twenty-four compounds were characterized, representing 94.8–99.8% of the total volatiles. In all samples, a strong decrease was observed in aldehydes compounds.
In the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen (IBU) is widely used; however, it has been limited the clinical use by its systemic side effect, such as gastrointestinal lesions. Therefore, we prepared topical gel ointment used IBU solid nanoparticles (IBUnano-gel formulation). In addition, we demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect by using arthritis model rat (adjuvant-induced arthritis rat, AA rat). The gel formulations were prepared using additives (Carbopol 934, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and bead mill-method. The IBU particle size in the IBUnano-gel formulation was 208 nm. The increase in inflammation of the hind feet of AA rats was attenuated by the treatment with the IBUnano-gel formulation, and preventive effect was higher than that of a gel formulation containing IBUmicroparticles (IBUmicro-gel formulation, mean particle size 85.4 μm); the accumulation and permeability through the skin of IBU from the IBUnano-gel formulation were significantly larger in comparison with the IBUmicro-gel formulation. Further, no gastrointestinal lesions were observed in AA rats following the repetitive administration of the 5% IBUnano-gel formulation (0.30 g) for 42 days (once a day). These results suggest that the dermal application of IBU-nanoparticles provide effective and efficient therapy that spares patients from unwanted side effects.