In this study, the effect of adding some aromatic plants (garlic, rosemary, thyme, and hot-red pepper) on the quality and organoleptic properties of flavored olive oil extracted from the olive fruits Maraqi variety are studied after adding aromatic plants at a concentration of 2%. Acidity, peroxide value, K232, K270, sensorial attributes, oxidative stability, and phenolic contents had been monitored. Also, phenolic compounds are identified in the flavored and unflavored olive oil samples. These results demonstrated that the aromatic plant had enhanced the flavored olive oil stability; the levels of addition of aromatic plants could be distinguished by the taster’s sensory attributes of flavored olive oil. As the plan of the experiment includes process preparation and consumer preference, it is possible to apply the obtained results to the production of flavored olive oil. The producers will gain a new product with more added values due to the nutritional and antioxidant strength of the aromatic plants.
Eleven fatty acids were identified during maturity in the wild (AraA) and varieties peanut kernels (AraC and AraT). These fatty acids included C16:0 (palmitic acid), C18:0 (stearic acid), C18:1 (oleic acid), C18:2 (linoleic acid), C19:0 (nonadecanoic acid), C20:1 (gadoleic acid), C20:0 (arachidic acid), C22:1 (erucic acid), C22:0 (behenic acid), C23:0 (tricosanoic acid) and C24:0 (linoceric acid). Two fatty acids C19:0 and C23:0 were not previously detected from peanut kernels. Furthermore, eight major fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C20:0, C20:1, C22:0 and C24:0) were quantified during maturity. Wild AraA was distinguished by its highest level of oleic (38.72%) and stearic (2.63%) acids contents and the lowest one of linoleic acid (19.40%) compared to the varieties. As for the O/L ratio, wild AraA presents a significantly higher (p < 0.05) (O/L = 2) than that of the AraC and AraT varieties with (O/L = 1.7 and 1.04) respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) between the eight major fatty acids revealed an inverse association between oleic and linoleic acids (r = -0.99, p < 0.001), while linoleic acid was positively correlated to palmitic acid (r = 0.97). These results aim to provide a detailed basis for quality improvement in the cultivated peanut with wild resources.
The objective of this study was to characterize the lipid class and fatty acid composition of four kinds of marine oils including Phaeodactylum tricornutum oil (PO), Laminaria japonica oil (LO), krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO), and evaluate their antioxidant capacities in vitro. The results indicated that compared to other three oils, PO showed the highest contents of total lipids and fucoxanthin (194.70 and 7.48 mg/g dry weight, respectively), the relatively higher content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (30.94 % in total fatty acids), and total phenolic content (675.88 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g lipids), thereby contribute to great advantages in scavenging free radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), peroxyl radical, as well as reducing FRAP value. In conclusion, PO should be considered as a potential ingredient for dietary supplement with antioxidant capacity.
This study aimed to examine the effect of using oleogel as a frying medium on the quality of coated and deep-fried chicken products. Sunflower oil-based oleogels prepared with 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% carnauba wax were produced for deep frying of coated chicken products and were compared to sunflower and commercial frying oil based on palm oil. The increased carnauba wax concentration in the oleogel decreased the pH, oil, oil absorbance and TBARS value of coated chicken (p < 0.05). Samples deepfried with oleogels containing 1.5% and 2% carnauba wax had the lowest pH values. In addition, since the oil absorption during deep-frying was significantly reduced in these groups (1.5 and 2%), the fat contents of coated products were also lower (p < 0.05). The use of oleogel as a frying medium did not cause a significant change in the color values of the coated chicken products. However, the increased carnauba wax concentration in the oleogel increased the hardness of coated chicken (p < 0.05). As a result, sunflower oilbased oleogels with a carnauba wax content of 1.5% and higher which is healthier in terms of saturated fat content can be used as frying media and can be improved the quality of coated and deep-fried chicken products.
To improve the outcome of laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery, improvement in the technology for removing purulent substances from the abdominal cavity is required. Ultrasonic cleaning technology may be suitable for the task. However, it is necessary to examine cleaning efficiency and safety through model tests that can lead to clinical trials for practical use. Nine surgical specialists first estimated the distribution of the actual attachment of purulent substances using videos of removing pus-like model dirt as an evaluation scale. Subsequently, cleaning tests were conducted using a small-size shower with model dirt that was somewhat difficult to remove, and its suitability as a model sample was confirmed. A mixture of miso and other substances was attached to a silicon sheet to prepare a test sample. The model dirt could be removed within a few seconds by cleaning using a probe-type ultrasonic homogenizer while the test sample was submerged in water. This performance greatly surpassed that of water flow cleaning under increased water pressure. An ultrasonic cleaner that is useful for irrigation during laparoscopic surgery will be suitable for practical use in laparoscopic surgery.
Organogels are attractive formulations in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceuticals. They exhibit characteristic frictional and mechanical responses during the collapse of a mesostructure. In this study, the friction dynamics of organogels composed of five different waxes (paraffin wax, microcrystalline wax, ceresin, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax) and liquid paraffin were evaluated using a sinusoidal motion friction evaluation system. All organogels exhibited a velocity dependence of friction coefficient that increased with the acceleration of the contact probe. Depending on the ease of the crystal formation of the waxes in liquid paraffin, hydrocarbon-based waxes formed soft organogels with a low-friction coefficient, whereas ester-based, highly polar waxes formed organogels that were hard and had a high-friction coefficient.
Wounds serve as an appropriate medium for the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and bacterial resistance to already available antibiotics demands new and safe approaches in the field of medicine. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibited a wide range of applications in biomedicine and emerged as promising nano-antibiotics. The biological preparation of AgNPs by utilizing aqueous plant extract has become an encouraging alternative to traditional chemical methodologies, owing to a viable eco-friendly approach. In the present study, Lepidium didymum leaves extract was used for the biosynthesis of AgNPs-LD. The nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The antibacterial activity of AgNPs-LD was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further, AgNPs-LD nanoparticles were incorporated into topical gels to evaluate their effectiveness for wound healing in the rat model. UV-visible spectra showed a surface resonance peak around 400 nm correlated with the synthesis of AgNPs; FTIR spectra verified the participation of phytochemicals present in L. didymum leaves extract in AgNPs-LD synthesis; and SEM revealed dispersed spherical nanoparticles as well as aggregated clusters. XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature, face-centered cubic lattice, and average crystallite size of 21.42 nm. The AgNPs-LD showed promising antibacterial activity against tested strains with a maximum zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa and showed accelerated wound healing capacity comparable to control and standard treatments over the time course of wound healing. The current study concluded that biosynthesized AgNPs-LD nanoparticles are effective as antibacterial agents and are promising novel wound healing products for clinical applications.
Two-percent ethanol increased the astaxanthin productivity of heterotrophic microalgae Aurantiochytrium sp. O5-1-1 to 2.231 mg/L, 45-fold higher than under ethanol-free condition. Ethanol in the medium decreased at the same rate as spontaneous volatilization, suggesting that it was not a transient signaling factor but a continuous stress on the cells. The triply mutated strain OM3-3 produced 5.075 mg/L astaxanthin under 2% ethanol conditions. Furthermore, the astaxanthin accumulation of the mutant OM3-9 was 0.895 mg/g, which was 150-fold higher than that of strain O5-1-1 in ethanol-free condition. These results are beneficial for the commercial exploitation of carotenoids producing Aurantiochytrium spp.
Novel acridinium esters containing several methyl groups, at least one of which is in the 1 or 8-position, have been synthesized and their structures established. The influence of the methyl substituents on the chemiluminescent properties of the synthesized acridinium esters has been investigated.
The aim of this study was to increase the cytotoxic activities of terpenoids via amino acid conjugation. Thus, 21 new ester derivatives (5-15, 19-27, and 29) were prepared by conjugation of the hydroxy groups in ent-beyerane-type diterpenoids (4) and oleanane-type triterpenoids (18), and their cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (leukemia, lung, and stomach) were evaluated. The prepared compounds showed cytotoxic effects; in particular, all amino acid conjugates of ent-beyerane-type diterpenoids (5-13) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 1.0-3.7 µM for HL60, 1.7-8.2 µM for A549, and 2.5-11.7 µM for MKN45). In addition, no differences were observed in the cytotoxic activities of l- and d-type amino acid conjugates.
This study aimed to determine the efficiency of ultraviolet (UV)-LED cold light treatment on the degradation of aflatoxin (AF)B1 in peanut oils. The peanut oil samples obtained from different places in China and abroad were determined for AFB1 degradation efficiency of the UV-LED cold-light irradiation method. The degradation products were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive MS). The results indicated that the AFB1 content in all peanut oil samples decreased rapidly after 5 min of irradiation. Four main photodegradation products (C18H16O7, C17H14O7, C17H14O7, and C17H14O8) were identified using the established LC-MS method. Their chemical structures were postulated based on the LC-MS data. Also, the degradation pathways were proposed based on the data obtained. Oxidation and reduction reactions were mainly responsible for AFB1-decomposition. The reactions occurred at the furan and lactone rings. These findings demonstrated that UV-LED cold-light irradiation was an effective method for treating AFB1- contaminated peanut oil.
The secondary and tertiary structures of myoglobin were disrupted by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) but were hardly affected by the bile salt, sodium cholate (NaCho). This disruption was induced by the binding of dodecyl sulfate (DS) ions to the protein. In this study, the removal of DS ions bound to the protein was attempted using NaCho. The extent of removal of DS ions was estimated by the restoration of the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein disrupted by SDS. The secondary structural change was followed by monitoring mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm, [θ]222, which was frequently used as a measure of α-helical content. The tertiary structural change was followed by examining the Soret band absorbance of the protein. Evidently, the magnitude of [θ]222 of myoglobin in the SDS solution initially decreased and then increased back to almost its original value as the NaCho concentration increased. The initial decrease in [θ]222 indicated the cooperation of NaCho and SDS in disrupting the secondary structure at low concentrations of both surfactants. This cooperation was also observed in the tertiary structural change as a shift of the Soret band maximum wavelength, λmax, and a decrease in the molar absorption coefficient, εmax, at λmax. Above a certain NaCho concentration, the position of λmax and the magnitude of εmax were also restored to their original states. The secondary and tertiary structures were simultaneously restored by adding NaCho. These recoveries were attributed to removal of the DS ions bound to the protein. This removal might be due to the ability of cholate anions to strip DS ions bound to the protein. The stripped DS ions are more likely to form SDS-NaCho mixed micelles in bulk than SDS-NaCho mixed aggregates on the protein.