Vesicles (liposomes and niosomes) are bilayer membranous capsules composed of amphiphilic molecules having aqueous phase in their interior and can encapsulate drug ingredients to act as drug delivery systems, a bio-membrane model, and so on. Vesicles also find their applications in cosmetics and foods industries since they can not only entrap water-soluble substances in their core, but also solubilize oily substances in the bilayer membrane. Almost half a century has passed since the discovery of vesicles by Bangham, and research on their basic properties and applications has been gaining momentum once again. In this article, the preparation and properties of vesicles (liposomes, niosomes) with excellent dispersion stability, especially formed in mixtures of amphiphilic molecules, are reported. Furthermore, the preparation of nano-sized silica hollow particles using vesicles as a structure-directing agent and their application to anti-reflection film are also described.
Nanoarchitectonics integrates nanotechnology with numerous scientific disciplines to create innovative and novel functional materials from nano-units (atoms, molecules, and nanomaterials). The objective of nanoarchitectonics concept is to develop functional materials and systems with rationally architected functional units. This paper explores the progress and potential of this field using biomass nanoarchitectonics for supercapacitor applications as examples of energetic materials and devices. Strategic design of nanoporous carbons that exhibit ultra-high surface area and hierarchically pore architectures comprising micro- and mesopore structure and controlled pore size distributions are of great significance in energy-related applications, including in high-performance supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cells. Agricultural wastes or natural biomass are lignocellulosic materials and are excellent carbon sources for the preparation of hierarchically porous carbons with an ultra-high surface area that are attractive materials in high-performance supercapacitor applications due to high electrical and ion conduction, extreme porosity, and exceptional chemical and thermal stability. In this review, we will focus on the latest advancements in the fabrication of hierarchical porous carbon materials from different biomass by chemical activation method. Particularly, the importance of biomass-derived ultra-high surface area porous carbons, hierarchical architectures with interconnected pores in high-energy storage, and high-performance supercapacitors applications will be discussed. Finally, the current challenges and outlook for the further improvement of carbon materials derived from biomass or agricultural wastes in the advancements of supercapacitor devices will be discussed.
Extraction process are one of the critical units in palm oil milling process which dictates its efficiency. In this study, hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is utilized for the crude palm oil (CPO) extraction. With regards to CPO quality, the extracted CPO using HCWE was analysed based on overall composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and fatty acid profile composition. This is to evaluate the possible product degradation during the process. From the results, the CPO extracted using HCWE process contain low FFA of 0.15±0.01% and low DAG of 2.145% which reflect to higher quality of CPO. This CPO also show the equal mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition at 50.63% and 49.93% respectively, within the CPO composition range in the literature. No significant changing of the fatty acid composition is observed between CPO extracted using HCWE and commercial CPO indicated that no possible undesired reaction during the extraction process. HCWE is a promising method for screw press system replacement, but the economic analysis is essential to evaluate its prospective.
The objective of this study was to develop a method for isolation and purification of γ-oryzanol from hydrolyzed rice bran acid oil (RBAO) using semi-preparative chromatography by first applying silica coated-thin layer chromatography (TLC) to determine the suitable mobile phase. Subsequently, column chromatography was carried out to determine the effects of purification conditions such as the amount of and particle sizes of the sample silica gel, and elution modes, on the percentage of γ-oryzanol yield and recovery. The results from the TLC suggested that 75:25 (v/v) hexane to ethyl acetate mixture was a suitable mobile phase. The semi-chromatographic results indicated that the column containing 10 g of 25-40 μm silica gel with isocratic elution gave the highest yield (84%) of purified γ-oryzanol (> 95% purity). Further application of a step-gradient elution with 85:15 (v/v), followed by 75:25 (v/v) hexane to ethyl acetate mixture increased chromatographic resolution (Rs), resulting in enhanced separation efficiency, which in turn led to a higher yield of purified γ-oryzanol of 90%.
In this study, four acetone-ethanol protocols were employed to investigate the effect of extraction processes on the yield and purity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from dried egg yolk powder and fresh liquid egg yolk, as well as the cholesterol distribution between the oil and PC fraction. Furthermore, the physicochemical (thermo-stability, fatty acid composition, and molecular structure) and emulsifying (zeta potential, particle size, EAI, ESI, and creaming index) properties of the final PC product were also examined. In addition, the structural characteristics of the egg yolk residual protein were highlighted to promote its application in food industries. The results showed that de-oiling with acetone prior to ethanol extraction can achieve high yield (19.92%) and purity (68.62%) of the PC product with low cholesterol content (< 0.12%). The extraction processes exhibited a significant impact on the emulsifying properties of the PC product. The creaming index of PC emulsions was higher than that of egg yolk powder emulsions with high protein concentration, suggesting that PC plays a critical role in the emulsifying stability of egg yolk protein dispersion. The structural characteristics of residual protein, including free sulfhydryl groups and primary, secondary, and ternary structures, showed considerable differentiation related to extraction processes. These findings provide a powerful tool for the dietary utilization of egg yolk PC and protein in future.
In this research, extracts from five flaxseed cakes (hot-pressed cake (HPC), cold-pressed cake (CPC), n-hexane extracted cake (HEC), supercritical CO2 extracted cake (SCEC) and subcritical n-butane extracted cake (SBEC)) were analyzed for the contents of total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant ability. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of HPC extract and synthetic butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in the oxidative evolution of flaxseed oil was compared by accelerated storage experiment (8 days at 65°C). The results showed that compared with other flaxseed cake extract, the extract of HPC contained the highest content of total phenolic (78.01 mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoid (2.73 mg RE/g extract), and showed the strongest antioxidant ability on DPPH, ABTS FRAP and total reducing power assay. We also found that different concentrations (800, 1000, 2000 ppm) of flaxseed cake extract could significantly slow down the oxidation of flaxseed oil during storage at 65°C, and the antioxidant effect strengthened with the increase of extract dosage. The antioxidant effect of the 2000 ppm extract was higher than that of 200 ppm BHA. The results indicated that flaxseed cake extract could effectively inhibit the oxidation of flaxseed oil and was a good substitute for synthetic antioxidants in oil industry.
As a unique traditional vegetable oil in China, camellia seed oil has very high edible value. Camellia seed kernel is mainly composed of fatty acids, which not only determines the oil yield of camellia seed, but also exert an important impact on the storage performance of camellia seed. In order to quickly and accurately determine the fatty acid content of camellia seed, this paper took camellia seed as the research object, used hyperspectral technology to determine the fatty acid content of camellia seed, and establishes a spectral model. 8 pretreatment methods, such as Savitzky-Golay smoothing, normalization, baseline correction, multivariate scattering correction, standard normal variable transformation, detrending algorithm, first derivative and second derivative, were adopted in this paper. The spectral prediction model of fatty acid content in camellia seed was established by combining 4 modeling methods: principal components regression (PCR), partial least square regression (PLSR), back propagation neural network (BP), radial basis function neural network (RBF). The optimal prediction model was selected by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of various models. The results showed that the spectral sensitive bands with high correlation coefficients (r) were 410-420 nm, 450-460 nm, 490-510 nm, 545-580 nm, 845-870 nm and 905-925 nm, respectively. The r obtained by MSC pretreatment of spectral data was the largest. The data obtained by 8 different pretreatment methods combined with RBF neural network model was the best, in which the average value of coefficient of determination (RC2) in the calibration set was 0.8654, and the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) was 0.0777; the average value of coefficient of determination (RP2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the prediction set model were 0.8437 and 0.0827, respectively. It could be seen that the best accuracy could be achieved by MSC pretreatment combined with RBF neural network modeling. This paper can provide reference for rapid nondestructive detection of fatty acid content in camellia seed by hyperspectral technology.
This study was conducted in crop season of 2018 and the olive fruits from three Turkish varieties Saurani, Karamani and Halhalı under the same pedoclimatic conditions (with no irrigation and no fertilization) were assessed. Oil content, fatty acid, and sterol compositions of three monovarietal ‘Halhalı’, ‘Karamani’, and ‘Saurani’ virgin olive oils were examined at green, spotted and ripe olives. The oil content of olives ranges between 23.77-34.77% and the highest oil yield was observed in the ripe Karamani variety. In terms of fatty acids, the lowest oleic acid values were found in the ripe period of Karamani variety (59.78%), and the highest oleic acid values in the green period of Halhalı variety (69.97%). The oleic and palmitic acid contents decreased, while linoleic and stearic acid contents increased with olive ripening. Total sterol amounts of olive oils varied between 946-1782 mg/kg and showed a significant increase with ripening (p < 0.05). The highest β-sitosterol amount was detected in the green period of Saurani variety (91.66%), and the lowest β-sitosterol amount in the spotted period of Halhalı variety (86.16%). The highest ∆5-avenasterol amounts were detected in the ripe period of Saurani variety (6.54%), the lowest ∆5-avenasterol amounts were detected in the green period of Halhalı variety (2.36%). Total β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and erythrodiol+uvaol contents of olive oils are changed with ripening. Accordingly, these results showed that fatty acid and sterol compositions can be used as indicators of variety and ripening degree among monovarietal virgin olive oils.
The fatty acid composition of coconut oil was modified using enzyme catalyzed interesterification with the aim of obtaining a product more alike to commercial MCT oils. This modification was carried out with the aim to obtain a product with some of the health benefits shown by MCT oils. Initially, lipase B from Candida antarctica immobilized on acrylic resin and lipozyme TL IM were tested as enzyme catalysts for the reaction. The enzyme catalysts have shown similar performance and lipozyme TL IM has been chosen as the catalyst based on its lower cost. The effects of reaction time, oil to methyl octanoate ratio, and enzyme loading on the reaction performance have been investigated with response surface methodology (RSM) utilizing the Box-Behnken approach. The optimized reaction was scaled up to 20 g. The possibility to source the medium chain fatty acid esters from coconut oil fatty acid distillate using a simple procedure was demonstrated and the possibility to use these esters for the interesterification of coconut oil has been demonstrated as well.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of interleukin-25, which belongs to the interleukin-17 family, on short-term high-fructose diet-induced hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation. Rats were fed a high-starch (control) or high-fructose diet for 7 d, with or without intraperitoneal administration of recombinant interleukin-25 from days 3-7. Treatment with interleukin-25 significantly reduced the mRNA levels and activity of fatty acid synthesis enzymes and caused a nominal reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol levels in rats fed a high-fructose diet but not in those fed a control diet. Interleukin-25 treatment did not affect the mRNA levels of β-oxidation enzymes in either the control or fructose-fed rats. These results suggest that treatment with interleukin-25 suppresses short-term high-fructose diet-induced fatty acid synthesis and leads to the alleviation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver.