The extraction of oil from Croton gratissimus seeds was studied using the three-factor five-level full-factorial central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of the response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of the three factors selected, viz., extraction time, extraction temperature and solvent-to-feed ratio on the extraction oil yield was investigated when n-hexane and ethyl acetate were used as extraction solvents. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the models developed were 0.98 for n-hexane extraction and 0.97 for ethyl acetate extraction. These results demonstrated that the models developed adequately represented the processes they described. From the optimized model, maximum extraction yield obtained from n-hexane and ethyl acetate extraction were 23.88% and 23.25%, respectively. In both cases the extraction temperature and solvent-to-feed ratio were 35°C and 5 mL/g, respectively. In n-hexane extraction the maximum conditions were reached only after 6 min whereas in ethyl acetate extraction it took 20 min to get the maximum extraction oil yield. Oil extraction of Croton gratissimus seeds, in this work, favoured the use of n-hexane as an extraction solvent as it offered higher oil yields at low temperatures and reduced residence times.
The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from six new progenies, obtained through controlled crossings between the main Tunisian variety Chemlali and autochthonous (Chemcheli) and foreign cultivars (Sigoise, Coratina, Koroneiki, and Arbequina) used as pollen acceptor or pollinator, were compared with the EVOO of Chemlali cultivar known to be the main one cultivated in Tunisia as it is the most adapted to the arid climate. Several analytical determinations of major and minor components of EVOO were employed, especially triacylglycerol and sterol fractions. All the studied hybrid EVOOs showed an improvement in their chemical composition and stability by comparison with Chemlali EVOO. The main triacylglycerols were 1,2,3-trioleylglycerol (OOO), 2,3-dioleyl-1-palmitoylglycerol (POO), 2,3-dioleyl-1-linoleylglycerol (LOO) and 2,3-dioleyl-1-stearoylglycerol (SOO). β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and campesterol were the principal sterols in all samples. Cholesterol, stigmasterol, clerosterol and Δ7-stigmastenol were also found in all samples. Oil samples examined showed inter-variability between the studied cultivars. Results of discriminant and principal component analyses appear to prove that genetic origin of the raw materials has a great influence on the final composition of the oil; especially triacylglycerol and sterol compositions.
In this study, the effects of roasting camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel.) seed oils at different temperatures (65°C, 100°C, 120°C, and 140°C) on the oxidative stability and composition of the oils were investigated. The results showed that, in terms of the quality of the oils, the roasting temperature influenced the total phenolic content (which ranged from 1.64～2.45 GAE mg/g for the different oils) and total flavonoid content (which ranged from 0.36～0.45 QE mg/g for the different oils), while the fatty acid profile and tocopherol content were not influenced by the roasting temperature. We also investigated the kinetic parameters of camellia seed oil during oxidation via Rancimat (at temperatures ranging from 110~140°C). It turned out that the natural logarithms of the oxidative stability index (OSI) varied linearly with respect to temperature (R2: 0.958～0.997). This was done on the basis of the Arrhenius equation that indicates that the activation energies (Ea) for oxidative stability are 65.7～78.4 KJ/mol. Simultaneously, we found that increasing the roasting temperature could increase the antioxidant stability of Maillard reaction products in camellia seed oil. The effects of roasting include the assurance that the camellia seed oil so produced will comply with the relevant governmental health codes and standards and have a longer shelf life.
This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which upon microencapsulation, can be used as a source of high quality lipids in infant formula. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the microencapsulation condition of HMFS as a functional product. The microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of microencapsulated HMFS was investigated with respect to four variables including concentration of soy lecithin (A), ratio of demineralized whey powder to malt dextrin (B), HFMS concentration (C), and homogenizing pressure (D). The optimum conditions for efficient microencapsulation of HMFS by the spray drying technique were determined as follows: the amount of soybean lecithin-0.96%, ratio of desalted whey powder to malt dextrin-2.04:1, oil content-17.37% and homogeneous pressure-0.46MPa. Under these conditions, the MEE was 84.72%, and the basic indices of the microcapsules were good. The structure of the microcapsules, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealed spherical, smooth-surfaced capsules with diameters ranging between 10-50 μm. Compared with HFMS, the peroxide value (POV) and acid value (AV) of the microcapsule were significantly lower during storage indicating that the microencapsulation process increases stability and shelf life. Infrared spectroscopic analyses indicated that HFMS had the same characteristic functional groups as the oil extracted from microcapsules. Simulated in vitro digestion revealed that the microcapsules were digested completely within 2h with maximum lipid absorption rate of 64%. Furthermore, these results advocate the embedding process of HFMS by RSM due to its efficacy.
The formation of liquid ordered (Lo) phase–like structures in stearyltrimethylammonium chloride/cholesterol/1,3-butanediol/water and hepta(oxyethylen) octadecyl ether/cholesterol/1,3-butanediol/water systems was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering measurements confirmed that Lo phase–like structures were formed in both surfactant/cholesterol systems, similar to the lysophospholipid/cholesterol system. It was revealed that the concentration of cholesterol at which only Lo phase–like structures are formed increases in the order stearyltrimethylammonium chloride < lysophospholipid < hepta(oxyethylen) octadecyl ether. In addition, for both surfactants, the interlayer spacing, d, was larger for Lo phase–like structures than for α-gel structures. These results suggest that the ionicity and structure of the hydrophilic group of each surfactant play important roles.
Copper (II) containing phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange method and characterization using various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization results showed that the Keggin ions were retained in the catalysts and possessed well thermal stability. The catalytic esterification of lauric acid with methanol could be easily achieved about 78.7% conversion under optimum condition, the catalyst also contributed to the stability of the catalyst in which it can be reused for a certain time. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to biodiesel production with high efficiency by Cu (II) ion exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in the esterification catalytic.
We have studied the phase behavior of distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in the presence of sodium β-sitosteryl sulfate (PSO4). PSO4 was found to induce sterol-rich and sterol-poor domains in the DSPC membrane. These two domains constitute a fluid, liquid ordered (Lo) phase and a gel (Lβ) phase. PSO4 was less miscible in DSPC than in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane, as evidenced by its tendency to separate from the bilayer at a concentration of 50 mol%. This lack of miscibility was attributed to the greater van der Waals forces between the PC hydrocarbon chains. In addition to affecting the phase behavior, PSO4 also enhanced the hydration of the membrane. Despite its weaker interaction with DSPC compared to DPPC, its tendency to fluidize this phospholipid and enhance its hydration can be useful in formulating cosmetics and pharmaceutical products.
There is increasing demand for low-salt meat products that retain traditional flavors. In this study, dry-salted fish (Decapterus maruadsi) were processed by 2 methods to obtain traditional salted fish (HS) and low-salt lactic acid-fermented fish (LAF). The relationship between lipolysis and lipid oxidation was investigated by evaluating changes in endogenous lipase (lipolytic enzymes; lipoxygenase, LOX), free fatty acid composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and peroxide value (POV) during processing. Lipolytic enzyme activity showed a decreasing trend, in general. LOX activity initially increased and eventually decreased. Phospholipase, acid lipase, and neutral lipase activity was 0.33, 0.17, 0.57 (in HS) and 0.39, 0.25, 0.67 (in LAF) times in the final product than the activity levels observed in fresh fish. A principal component analysis indicated that phospholipase and neutral lipase play major roles in promoting lipid hydrolysis (in HS and LAF), the correlation between lipolytic activity and lipid oxidation in HS is greater than the correlation in LAF, and the contribution of LOX to lipid oxidation was minor in salted fish.
Alkyl glyceryl ethers (AKGs) are widely used as emulsion stabilizers, and their anti-inflammatory effects are well known. Daily exposure to environmental stresses, such as chemicals, low humidity and ultraviolet light (UV), can initiate and promote the development of various skin problems. Among those stresses, it has been established that UV induces skin pigmentation and accelerates premature skin aging due to the inflammation that results. Here, we investigated whether chimyl alcohol (CA), which is an AKG, suppresses the inflammatory process. The suppression of cell damage and the reduction of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) after UVB exposure was evaluated using the Neutral red (NR) and the 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assays, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins related to inflammation were evaluated by Real-time RT-PCR and ELISA assays, respectively. CA suppressed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in UVB-exposed NHEKs according to the down-regulated expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA. Furthermore, CA up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in NHEKs. Finally, we examined the effects of CA on siPPAR-γ transfected NHEKs. siPPAR-γ transfection of NHEKs abolished the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 and UVB-stimulated PGE2 secretion that were regulated by CA. Hence, CA suppresses the UVB-induced COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 production through PPAR-γ as an agonist. We conclude that CA provides useful protection and/or alleviation against UV damage.
Diabetes is a disease characterized not only by a high blood glucose level but also by high ketone levels. Medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are known as functional lipids, but they are rapidly metabolized to produce ketone bodies. In this study, we examined the effects of MCT intake on the pathological condition and energy bioavailability of diabetic animals. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were used as animal models for type I diabetes. The pathological condition was estimated through blood biochemical values, and the energy expenditure was calculated based on the respiratory quotient, which was analyzed using a mass spectrometer.
Eight-week-old male STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats were prepared and fed soybean oil (LCT) or MCT diets for 60 days. The survival rate of rats fed the MCT diet was higher than that of rats fed the LCT diet, although no ameliorating effects in the blood biochemical values were observed. In rats fed the LCT diet, their energy expenditure was much higher than their energy intake, whereas the energy balance was approximately equal in rats fed the MCT diet.
These results indicated that energy bioavailability may contribute, at least in part, to the high survival rates in the diabetic MCT group, although MCT intake did not definitely improve the pathological condition of the experimental rats.
Emu is the second-largest extant bird native to Australia. Emu oil, obtained from the emu’s fat deposits, is used as an ingredient in cosmetic skincare products. Emu oil has been reported to improve several inflammatory symptoms; however, the mechanisms of these anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of emu oil on the inflammatory macrophage response in vitro. A murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264, was incubated in culture media supplemented with or without emu oil and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined phagocytic activity by measuring the number of fluorescent microspheres taken up by the cells. The phagocytic activity of RAW 264 cells in the presence of LPS was unaffected by emu oil. We also determined production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the culture medium using the Griess reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) using western blotting. The results indicated that emu oil reduced the LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, and iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that emu oil does not reduce the phagocytic clearance rate of inflammatory matter; however, it does reduce the production of NO and TNF-α in macrophages. These latter products enhance the inflammatory response and emu oil thereby demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties.
Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, implying its potential application as a transdermal enhancer. In this study, the function of PSO in prompting the percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was examined and compared with isopropyl palmitate (IP). IP of 10% enhanced the cumulative permeation amount of resveratrol by 50% but did not influence the permeation velocity. Though 2.5% and 5.0% IP accelerated the penetration process of resveratrol, they had no discernable impact on total permeation amount. In contrast, the cumulative percutaneous amount of the drug with 2.5%, 5.0% and 10% PSO was 1.25, 2.25, and 3.14-fold that of resveratrol alone, respectively. Moreover, PSO of different concentrations speeded up resveratrol to permeate through skin in the whole process, exhibiting its superior capacity over IP in enhancing the transdermal absorption of resveratrol. IP of 2.5% substantially augmented resveratrol retention in stratum corneum (SC), epidermis, and dermis (p < 0.05) while 2.5% PSO only increased the drug detaining in SC. Involvement of oils also aided in resveratrol diffusion within skin. The study demonstrates that both IP and PSO prompted the percutaneous transport of resveratrol. PSO presents more promising opportunities in serving as a percutaneous enhancer for transdermal preparations.
We discovered that Candida floricola ZM1502 is capable of selectively producing the promising hydrophilic biosurfactants, acid-form sophorolipids (SLs), from glycerol. However, productivity was very low (approximately 3.5 g L–1) under the initial culture conditions. Here, we describe the design of culture medium for abundant production of acid-form SLs by C. floricola ZM1502 using waste glycerol and hydrophobic substrates in order to develop a method for SL production and disposal of waste glycerol produced by oleo-chemical industries. Urea provided the best nitrogen source for acid-form SL production from glycerol among four nitrogen sources tested [urea, NaNO3, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4]. Among carbon sources we compared, hydrophobic substrates (soybean oil and oleic acid) led to productivities of approximately 20 g L–1, indicating that hydrophobic substrates provided fatty acid moieties for SL production. Addition of olive oil and oleic acid to waste glycerol enhanced acid-form SL production to 42.1 ± 0.9 and 37.5 ± 3.4 g L–1, respectively. To develop a potential industrial process, we explored other suitable hydrophobic substrates for SL production, which were obtained on site from oleo-chemical industries. Alkyl C18 esters (Pastell M-182), along with waste glycerol, increased acid-form SL production to 48.0 ± 3.4 g L–1 over a 7-d period. Furthermore, we demonstrated abundant production of acidic SLs at the mini-jar fermenter scale, obtaining 169 g L–1 over 180 h using a fed-batch cultivation technique. Efficient acid-form SL production by C. floricola could have a great impact on the development of bio-industrial processes using waste glycerol as a substrate.