Recently new classes of gemini surfactants have emerged which are composed of two hydrobhobic tails and two cationic head groups linked by spacer group i.e cationic gemini surfactants. Now a days, different types of cationic geminis have been synthesized .In comparison with corresponding single chain surfactants, these surfactants are more efficient in lowering surface tension and have much lower cmc. Due to their higher surface activity they have excellent properties of dispersion stabilization and soil cleanup. These compounds are widely used as an effective emulsifiers, dispersing and anti-foaming agents etc. Cationic gemini surfactants show good antimicrobial activities. Some of these geminis show good biodegradability too. This review paper deals with synthesis, properties, applications, and biodegradability of new cationic gemini surfactants.
GABA-tempeh used in the present study was prepared by aerobic and successive anaerobic fermentation of boiled soybean with Rhizopus microsporus. The contents of free amino acids particularly, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and oligopeptides in GABA-tempeh were significantly higher than those in conventional tempeh. In this study, the effects of dietary GABA-tempeh on lipid metabolism in rats were compared with casein and soy protein by using high fat diets. It was found that the plasma triacylglycerol levels decreased significantly by consumption of GABA-tempeh compared with soy protein and casein. The higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) and lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the GABA-tempeh group as compared with the other groups favoured the antiatherosclerosis effect of GABA-tempeh. GABA-tempeh is considered to be antihypertensive food since it is particularly rich in GABA. These combined results suggest that intake of GABA-tempeh can prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
The crystallization of triacylglycerin comprised of saturated fatty palmitic acid and unsaturated fatty oleic acid was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) using PPP (tripalmitoylglycerol), PPO (1, 2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-glycerol), POP (1, 3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol), POO (1, 2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-glycerol) and OOO (trioleoylglycerol). Determination of the supercooling temperature, the difference in melting and solidifying points, was made based on DSC peaks. Supercooling was noted to increase with oleoyl chain number in a triacylglycerin molecule. With sample solidification, the subcell structure was found to change significantly with supercooling. Orthorhombic perpendicular packing (O⊥) occurred with increase in supercooling while hexagonal packing (H) took place with decrease in this cooling. Increase in supercooling was shown to arise with reduction in the crystalinity of triacylglycerin containing unsaturated fatty acid chains.
New multifunctional raw materials for cosmetics, polyoxyethylene (POE) /polyoxypropylene (POP) dimethylether [EPDME] were previously developed by the authors. The present study presents a novel emulsifying method by which ultrafine emulsions of particle size less than 100 nm can be easily prepared using EPDME. The equilibrium phase state of the water - oil - surfactant - EPDME was examinated using a phase diagram so as to clarify the underlying mechanism in the preparation of ultrafine emulsions and the results indicated the following:  a special microemulsion phase is formed in a region different from that of the normal microemulsion phase when oil, EPDME, surfactant and water are mixed in the proper proportions and  ultrafine emulsions form in a two-phase region (O + Wm) when the composite of the microemulsion phase is diluted with water. The chemical structure of EPDME is similar to that of the polyoxyethylene chain in polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants. EPDME may thus be considered a hydrophilic co-surfactant and a special microemulsion phase is formed at high EPDME and polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant. EPDME may possibly be distributed in the polyoxyethylene chain of the polyoxyethylene surfactant. When diluting this microemulsion phase, EPDME rapidly decreases in concentration and, in free form virtually unadsorbed onto the oil - water interface may diffuse in the bulk water phase from polyoxyethylene chains in surfactants. It would then follow that an ultrafine emulsion consisting only of nonionic surfactant and oil may form in excess.
Six phenolic compounds and one steroid were isolated from the leaves of Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta (red perilla) with Japanese dietary pickled plum (Ume). These compounds were identified based on UV, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopic data as β-sitosterol , shisonin , kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside , rosmarinic acid , rosmarinic acid methyl ester , 4-glucopyranosylcinnamic acid , and caffeic acid methyl ester . In the bioassay, remarkable superoxide scavenging activity was found in the 1-butanol extract, and 20% methanol-water eluate, 50% methanol-water eluate and methanol eluate of an Amberlite XAD-2. In addition, remarkable superoxide scavenging activity was found in rosmarinic acid and rosmarinic acid methyl ester which are those isolation compounds. Moreover, we synthesized caffeic acid derivatives which were metabolic product of citrusin C and rosmarinic acid, and pharmacological effects such as superoxide scavenging activity used metabolite (vanillic acid, 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid) of the chlorogenic acid as a starting material, and synthesized glycoside. And we examined their superoxide scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity (Step1 as L-Tyrosine substrate; Step 2 as L-DOPA substrate), and their synthesized compounds investigated for cosmetic use. As a result, for tyrosinase inhibitory activity, isoferulic acid (3,4-CA) and their methyl ester (3,4-CAM), good inhibition of 67.5 and 93.9% of Step 1 and 65.1 and 53.8% of Step 2 were noted. These compounds inhibited tyrosinase activity more than arbutin (63.0% of Step 1 and 7.7% of Step 2). For superoxide scavenging activity, ferulic acid (4,3-CA) and their methyl ester (4,3-CAM), and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (4-CA) were good activity of 43.6, 57.9 and 55.2%, respectively. Melanin inhibition and cytotoxicity were examined by using cultured B16 melanoma cells. More than 40% suppression was observed in 3-β-glucopyranosyl isoferulic acid methyl ester (3,4-CAGlc) and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid methyl ester (4-CAM).
Vegetable biomass available in all regions of the world was focused on for the purposes of effectively utilizing food wastes, attempting to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide, and developing simple water treatment techniques in developing country. In this study, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metal ions onto vegetable biomass as bean curd lees (BC), corn cobs (CO), and wheat bran (WB) were investigated. In single solution system, larger amounts of iron ion were adsorbed onto BC than onto CO and WB. Iron and lead ions were also found to compete in adsorption to BC in binary solution system. Furthermore, the amounts of the heavy metal ions adsorbed depended on the protein content of the vegetable biomass. However, because the vegetable biomass is rich in nutrients, they are likely to render drinking water treated with them liable to putrefaction. Although viable bacterial counts increased in water with the vegetable biomasses added, the water is considered suitable for drinking for 48 h or less after the treatment.