Journal of Oleo Science
Online ISSN : 1347-3352
Print ISSN : 1345-8957
ISSN-L : 1345-8957
Volume 69 , Issue 7
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
Oils and Fats
  • Pawitchaya Podchong, Patraporn Inbumrung, Sopark Sonwai
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 659-670
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This work investigated the crystallization and melting behavior of cocoa butter substitute (CBS) blended with two hard lauric fats: fully hydrogenated palm kernel oil (FHPKO) and krabok seed fat (KSF). The aim was to find a way to increase the heat resistance of CBS for the production of heat-resistant compound chocolate (HRCC). Adding FHPKO to CBS increased the crystallization rate with a decrease in crystallization induction time but did not increase the heat resistance. In contrast, all KSF-CBS blends exhibited higher heat resistance than CBS and crystallized into β′ form, a preferred polymorph for fats used in compound chocolate. Only the blends with 10-60% KSF melted completely at the body temperature, indicating that they would leave no waxy mouthfeel, but the blends with 30 and 40% KSF exhibited a significant decrease in the crystallization rate compared to the original CBS. Therefore, the KSF-CBS blends with 10, 20 and 60% KSF are recommended for future use as fats for HRCC production.

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  • Radhika Loganathan, Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi, Shireene Ratna Vethakk ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 671-676
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study was designed to evaluate the nutritive value, thermal stability and consumer acceptance of cupcakes baked with red palm olein compared to palm olein. Thermal stability was evaluated for acidity, peroxide, p-anisidine and total oxidation value (cumulative between peroxide and p-anisidine values), as well as fatty acid composition. The concentrations of phytonutrients including tocopherols and tocotrienols, alpha- and beta-carotene after baking were also determined. Acceptance of the cupcakes was assessed using a structured hedonic scale of five points by 29 panelists. As compared to initial test oil (red palm olein), acidity (red palm olein, 0.07±0.01% vs cupcakes containing red palm olein, 0.09±0.01%; P=0.0232), peroxide value (red palm olein, 0.33±0.05 meq O2 kg–1 vs cupcakes containing red palm olein 0.73±0.06 meq O2 kg–1; P=0.0011) and total oxidation value (red palm olein, 2.24±0.13 unit vs cupcakes containing red palm olein, 3.09±0.17 unit; P=0.0012) were found to be higher in cupcakes containing red palm olein, which is within the acceptable rancidity range (peroxide value < 7.5 meq O2 kg–1) for snack food category. No changes were found on oxidative parameters (acidity, peroxide, p-anisidine values and total oxidation value) in cupcakes containing palm olein. Cupcakes made with red palm olein retained nearly 100% of alpha- and beta-carotenes upon baking. Tocopherol homologues were stable in both comparisons, with 95% retention as compared to tocotrienol homologues (~85%). Cupcakes made from red palm olein received higher score (mean=3.29) in sensory evaluation as compared to cupcakes containing palm olein (mean=3.07). The study, therefore, encourages the inclusion of red palm olein in the formulation of bakery products.

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  • Tatsuya Hayakawa, Miran Yanagawa, Atsushi Yamamoto, Sen-ichi Aizawa, A ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 677-684
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A simple screening method for discrimination between commercial extra virgin olive oils and their blends with other vegetable oils was developed. Squalene, which was contained relatively high amounts in virgin olive oil, was determined by HPLC after a simple pretreatment that was carried out by dilution of oil samples with 2-propanol. Tyrosol, which was contained at relatively high concentration in virgin olive oil among phenolic compounds, was determined by HPLC after a simple liquid-liquid extraction. When using squalene and tyrosol contents as axes, extra virgin olive oils could be discriminated from pure olive oils, blended oils (extra virgin olive oils with sunflower oil or grapeseed oil) and other vegetable oils. These results suggest that determining squalene and tyrosol in seed oil samples could be useful in distinguishing between extra virgin olive oil and blended oils as a screening method.

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  • Hui-Hui Dai, Xiao-Dong Li, An-Chi Wei, Xue-De Wang, Dong-Ying Wang
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 685-692
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Although cold-pressed sesame oil (CPSO) possesses high nutritional value, its application in the food industry is limited due to its poor oxidative stability. The aim of this study was to enhance the oxidative stability of CPSO by complex coacervation microcapsule technology with gelatin and gum Arabic as wall materials. The characterization of CPSO microcapsules were evaluated by a particle image analyzer, a laser particle size distribution analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The encapsulation efficiency (EE) reached 90.25%. The average particle size of the microcapsules was approximately 117.1 μm and many oil droplets were encapsulated by complex coacervation to form a multinuclear spherical microcapsule. The FTIR study confirmed that the process of complex coacervation was formed between gelatin and gum Arabic by electrostatic interactions. The TGA study suggested that the microcapsules had good heat resistance. The fatty acid composition, the content of sesamin, sesamolin and vitamin E in CPSO were determined before and after microencapsulation. It showed that the microencapsulation process had almost no effect on the fatty acid composition, sesamin and sesamolin, only Vitamin E was slightly lost during the microencapsulation process. The accelerated storage test showed that microencapsulation significantly increased the oxidative stability of CPSO.

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  • Iteb Trabelsi, Kamel Essid, Mohamed Hedi Frikha
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 693-701
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Fatty acid sugar esters are non-ionic surfactant active agents with excellent performance and many uses. This work is devoted to the synthesis of sugar esters by the esterification reaction of sugar with mixed carboxylicpalmitic anhydrides using resin Amberlyst-15 as heterogeneous acid catalyst. These anhydrides should be stable and react as acylating agents. Influence of different reaction parameters, such as the molar ratio (sucrose/anhydride), the type of solvent and the reaction time on the yield of the esterification reaction were studied. The esterification reaction of sucrose with mixed palmitic benzoic anhydride leads to a mixture of sucrose esters of palmitic acid with a good percentage of conversion. The mixed anhydride was both reactive and selective for the preparation of fatty acid ester.

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Detergents, Surfactants, Interface and Colloid
  • Siqi Hu, Duojiao Fu, Hanyu Chen, Hongqin Liu, Baocai Xu
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 703-710
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium surfactants containing carboxylate counterion with the formula C17H35CONH(CH2)2N+(CH3)2(CH2)2N+(CH3)2(CH2)2 NHCO C17H35·2Y (Y=HCOO, CH3COO, CH3CHOHCOO) have been synthesized by a counterion conversion process and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. It is found that these surfactants reduce the surface tension of water to a minimum value of 26.78 mN·m–1 at a concentration of 1.21 ×10–5 mol·L–1. TEM images reveal that aggregates with vesicles or tubular structure are spontaneously formed in these surfactants aqueous solution with the concentration of 1×10–3 mol·L–1. It is also found that they are effective corrosion inhibitors for A3 steel in acid solution and have superior antibacterial activity at a concentration of 0.1g·L–1.

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Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  • Kurin Iimura, Jun-ichiro Hattan, Norihiko Misawa, Kazutoshi Shindo
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 711-718
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Angelica keiskei (ashitaba) is an edible plant belonging to the Apiacea family. We focused on sesquiterpenes in the leaves eaten by humans (specifically, in the Japanese population), and confirmed the presence of several sesquiterpenes by GC-MS. Thus, total RNA was extracted from the ashitaba leaves, reverse transcribed, and the resultant cDNAs were used for degenerate PCR followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Consequently, we were able to isolate two full-length Tps genes (designated AkTps1 and AkTps2). Functional analysis of these two genes was carried out with Escherichia coli cells that expressed mevalonate pathway genes to increase the substrate (farnesyl diphosphate) amount of sesquiterpene synthase, revealing that AkTps1 encodes germacrene D synthase, and AkTps2 codes for an enzyme that catalyzes the generation of germacrene B and smaller amounts of germacrene D (a germacrene B and D synthase). We proposed biosynthetic routes of these two sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) via farnesyl cation.

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  • Madoka Yoshikawa, Taeko Mizutani, Yuri Okano, Hitoshi Masaki
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 719-726
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Residues of olive fruit (ROF) after the extraction of oils are an increasing source of industrial waste, because olive oil is becoming more popular as a healthy food. It has been reported that olives have some polyphenols that have an antioxidation capability. On the other hand, excess oxidative stress disrupts epidermal barrier function. This study was conducted to determine whether ROF could be utilized as an antioxidant source to reduce industrial wastes and to identify possible active materials to maintain healthy skin. Olive fruits are categorized into two groups depending on the time of harvest, young fruit (YF) and mature fruit (MF). Thus, we examined the antioxidant potentials of extracts from YF and from MF to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) from biological and chemical aspects. HaCaT keratinocytes cultured with extracts of YF or MF had reduced levels of intracellular ROS in spite of the relatively low chemical capability against ROS scavenging. The biological effects of the YF extract were superior to those of the MF extract. The YF extract showed effective reductions of intracellular ROS and carbonylated proteins that were elevated by the stress-related hormone cortisol. In addition, the YF extract reinforced the intracellular antioxidation capability through the activation of Nrf2 signaling. Taken together, the YF extract was an effective source to reinforce the intracellular antioxidation capability. We conclude from these results that utilizing ROF would lead to the reduction of industrial wastes and would supply active materials to maintain healthy skin.

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  • Hadeel Hosney, Eslam G. Al-Sakkari, Ahmad Mustafa
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 727-735
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Petroleum based phthalate plasticizers encounter enormous claims to prohibit their production due to their harmful health impacts when they are mixed with plastics. That is why efforts are being done to find safer natural alternatives. We have investigated the reaction kinetics of the esterification epoxidation of oleic acid and 2-ethylhexanol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed using Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym 435, Novozymes, Kobenhavn, Denmark). The product of this reaction is epoxidized 2-ethylhexyl oleate, a non-phthalate green plasticizer. The kinetic model for this reaction follows a multi-substrate PingPong Bi-Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition by the alcohol. The reaction’s kinetic parameters were found to be 0.76 M, 0.37 M, 0.08 M, and 37.20 mM/min for Michalis-Menten constant for oleic acid (Kmo), Michalis-Menten constant for alcohol (Kma), alcohol inhibition constant (Kia), and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax), respectively. Then the Gibbs function analysis of the transition state based on the Arrhenius and Eyring equations was carried out. The internal diffusional limitations were found to be negligible as the effectiveness factor took the value of almost unity. While the external mass transfer resistance had no effect on the reaction due to operating at relatively high agitation speed and high temperature. This investigation confirms that this reaction was only kinetically controlled.

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  • Serap Çetinkaya, Ali Fazıl Yenidünya, Faika Başoğlu, Kamuran Saraç
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 737-742
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Esterification of D-glucose with oleic- and palmitic acids were carried out in the absence and presence of a biocatalyst, Candida antarctica lipase. The reaction medium was a mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide and tert-butanol (1:4, v/v). The reaction products were analysed by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, HSQC, and by ESI-MS. Results indicated that the ester products formed were 6-O-glucose oleate and 6-O-glucose palmitate both in the absence and in the presence of the biocatalyst, with yields above 90%.

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Medical Chemistry
  • Xing Fang, Ke-Zhen Tong, Xin Wang, Hua-Fu Ni
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 743-750
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, two new mixed-ligand coordination polymers {[Co(bbi)(tdc)]·5H2O}n (1, bbi = 1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) and {[Cu2(bimb)(H2O)(μ3-tdc)2(DMF)2]·H2O}n (2, bimb = 4-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl-methyl)benzene) were synthesized under the solvothermal conditions via reaction of 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) with the corresponding metal salts in the existence of different flexible bis-imidazole ligands (bbi for 1 and bimb for 2). The as-prepared two structures were detected via the single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and then characterized via the analysis of element, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the protective activity of the compound on the mice with ischemic stroke was evaluated. Firstly, the real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain raction (RT-PCR) was carried out to determine the effect of compounds 1 and 2 against the relative expression level of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (glp1r) on the cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Next, the Morris Water Maze Experiment was also used to detect the improvement function of compounds 1 and 2 on the nice mice cognitive function.

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Nutrition and Health Function
  • Shinji Yamashita, Takuya Seino, Miho Inobe, Mirinthorn Jutanom, Satosh ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 751-757
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in East Asian countries has necessitated the implementation of preventive methods in the form of dietary supplementation and changes in dietary habits. We have previously reported that dietary golden oyster mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) ethanol extract (GOMEE) suppresses intestinal inflammation in mouse models of IBD induced by dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS). Here, we investigated the components of GOMEE that exert suppressive effects on colon inflammation in vivo and in vitro. The total lipid fraction was extracted from GOMEE, and the polar and neutral lipid fractions were subsequently separated via solvent fractionation. Mice were assigned to dietary groups—control, 1% total lipid, 1% polar lipid, or 1% neutral lipid diet—and fed the respective diets for one week; mice were administered 1.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum for 20 days. Dietary supplementation with the total or polar lipid fraction alleviated DSS-induced chorionic crypt injury as determined by morphological observation, while dietary supplementation with the neutral lipid fraction did not produce such effects. In the in vitro study, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as the colon model, treatment with the total or polar lipid fraction suppressed cell decrease by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis whereas treatment with the neutral lipid fraction did not. Moreover, accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a fungal sphingolipid, was observed in the intestinal cells after treatment with polar lipid fraction. These results suggest that the active components of GOMEE that suppress colon inflammation are polar lipids, especially GlcCer. The structure of mushroom GlcCer differs from that of the plant counterpart and is therefore expected to exert different food functions.

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Essential Oils and Natural Products
  • Hala I. Al-Jaber, Omar Bdair, Lina M. Barhoumi, Reem N. Dabaibeh, Musa ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 759-765
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The current investigation reports the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds emitted from the different aerial organs of two populations of Salvia dominica L. from Jordan collected from Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian bio-geographical zones. Oxygenated monoterpenes dominated the emission profiles of most organs from the two populations but with variable qualitative and quantitative differences. Mediterranean samples contained higher content of oxygenated monoterpenes (stems: 88.37%, leaves 89.95%, pre-flowering buds 67.14%, fully opened flowers 79.43%, sepals 90.93% and petals 92.25%) as compared to those from Irano-Turanian origin (range 39.85% to 75.06%). trans-Sabinene hydrate dominated the emission profiles of all organs from Irano-Turanian zone (range 38.54% to 73.24%) in addition to the stem, sepal and petal samples from the Mediterranean zone (51.37% to 86.98%). The other organs from the Mediterranean zone were dominated by α-terpenyl acetate (27.66-54.87%). Cluster and Principle Component statistical analysis classified the two populations into two clusters based on their origin. The current study evidenced the different VOCs composition in the two populations, that was mainly related to climatic and environmental conditions and suggested the presence of two ecotypes of S. dominica L.in Jordan.

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  • Kazutoshi Sakurai, Kenichi Tomiyama, Yoshihiro Yaguchi, Yoshinori Asak ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 767-770
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The volatile components produced by Leptolejeunea elliptica (Lejeuneaceae), which is a liverwort grown on the leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), were collected and analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). 1-Ethyl-4-methoxybenzene (1), 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene (2), and 1-acetoxy-4-ethylbenzene (3) were identified as the major components together with several other phenolic compounds, including 1,2-dimethoxy-4-ethylbenzene, and 4-ethylguaiacol in addition to sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, such as α-selinene, β-selinene, β-elemene, and β-caryophyllene. GC/Olfactometry showed the presence of linalool, acetic acid, isovaleric acid, trans-methyl cinnamate, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(2E)-decenal, as the volatile components produced by L. elliptica.

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General Subjects
  • Sahar Y. Al-Okbi, Shaimaa E Mohammed, Enas S.K. Al-Siedy, Naglaa A. Al ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 771-782
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The role of fish oil, primrose oil and their mixture in ameliorating the changes in Alzheimer’s like model was evaluated in rats. Primrose oil and primrose/fish oil mixture fatty acids composition was assessed by gas chromatography. The rat experiment consisted of 5 groups; the first fed on balanced diet as control normal (CN); the other four groups treated with intraperitoneal aluminum lactate and consumed dyslipidemic diet; one group served as control Alzheimer’s like disease (CA) while the other three groups (test groups) received daily oral dose from primrose oil, fish oil and primrose/fish oil mixture separately for 5 weeks. Results showed primrose oil and primrose/ fish oil mixture to contain gamma linolenic acid as 9.15 and 4.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic were present as 10.9 and 6.5 %, respectively in the oil mixture. Dyslipidemia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO with decrease in plasma magnesium, brain catalase, reduced glutathione, body weight gain and brain weight were demonstrated in CA compared to CN. Brain histopathology and immuno-histochemistry showed neuronal degeneration and neurofibrillary tangles with elevated myeloperoxidase and nuclear factor-kappa B in CA compared to CN. The tested oils demonstrated neuro-protection reflected in the variable significant improvement of biochemical parameters, immuno-histochemistry and brain histopathology. Primrose/fish oil mixture was superior in reducing ESR, brain MDA, plasma activity of BChE and brain histopathological changes along with elevating plasma magnesium. Primrose/fish oil mixture and fish oil were more promising in improving plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than primrose. Fish oil was the most efficient in improving plasma total cholesterol (T-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol and T-C /HDL-C. Primrose/fish oil mixture and primrose oil were superior in elevating brain catalase compared to fish oil. Other parameters were equally improved by the different oil treatments. Primrose oil, fish oil and their mixture reduced the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in rats with superiority to primrose/fish oil mixture.

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  • Hirobumi Shibata, Yoshinobu Iizuka, Takayuki Kawai, Yoshito Watai, Mas ...
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 783-787
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we synthesized ZnO particles using anionic amphiphiles as an additive. While the single-crystal particles prepared in the absence of such amphiphiles had a hexagonal rod-like shape, those fabricated using anionic amphiphilic molecules had a hexagonal plate-like shape. The anionic amphiphiles inhibited crystal growth in the c-axis direction of ZnO. This demonstrated that the anionic surfactants served as crystal-growth-directing agents, controlling the shape of the ZnO particles.

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Oils and Fats
  • Sasiwimon Tabyam
    2020 Volume 69 Issue 7 Pages 789-793
    Published: 2020
    Released: July 02, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this study is to review the compliance of fatty acid compositions of Thai and India rice bran oil and level of desmethylsterols of Thai crude rice bran oil with the Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oil (Codex Stan 210-1999). Fatty acid compositions of 90 samples of Thai and India refined rice bran oil were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the contents of the C14:0, C18:2, C22:0 and C24:0 possible fall outside the range of Codex Stan 210-1999. In addition, sterol profile content of 40 samples of crude rice bran oil from Thai refinery plants were studied. The test results of major compositions of desmethylsterols are in good agreement with CODEX STAN 210-1999 except for Brassicasterol and other desmethylsterols. Accordingly, these data were proposed to corporate into the codex standard. Consequently, Codex agreed to amend the fatty acid composition of C14:0, C18:2, C22:0 and C24:0 from ND to 1.0, 21 to 42, ND to 1.0 and ND to 0.9 % and broaden level of Brassicasterol and other desmethylsterols to “ND-0.3” and to “7.5-12.8” accordingly.

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