Imidazoline derivatives, a class of novel cationic surfactants are presently gaining importance in global detergent market due to their wide range of applications. These are extensively used mainly as fabric softeners and antistatic agents. The present communication reviews the preparation, reaction scheme, reaction rates and properties of imidazoline derivatives. The analysis of imidazoline derivatives, its mode of action, their biodegradation and various applications have also been discussed.
Triacylglycerin in Palm Oil contains POP (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) at 30%, POO (1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-glycerol) at 20% and PPP (tripalmitoylglycerol) at 5%. The crystallization temperature of PPP is high and the rates of crystal nuclear formation and growth are fast. It is thus considered that PPP may have some effect on the manner or mode of Palm Oil. Examination was thus made to clarify how PPP may affect the crystallization of POP and POO by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X ray diffractometry (XRD) conducted on PPP/POP and PPP/POO mixtures. High and low temperature peaks were noted to appear on the DSC crystallization curve for either of these mixtures. The high temperature peak was considered possibly due to PPP, and the low temperature peak, to POP or POO. DSC isothermal analysis indicated the rate of crystal growth of either mixture to exceed that of pure of POP or POO. Crystal mixture structure was also seen to be complicated than either compound in pure form. The present findings thus clearly indicate that clarification should be made of the effects of high melting point triacylglycerin, such as PPP, on the crystallization of Palm Oil.
Sterol composition in muscle and viscera tissues of the marine bivalve Megangulus zyonoensis was investigated. Among 13 different sterols identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of their trimethylsilyl ether derivatives, cholesterol was the most abundant sterol, followed by 24-methylenecholesterol, in both muscle and viscera tissues. In this study, the proportion of brassicasterol, in addition to that of cholesterol, differed between the muscle and viscera.
We have studied the effectiveness of surface tension on surfactants risk assessment. γtox was defined as surface tension at a point where acute aquatic toxicity of a surfactant emerges. Oryzias latipes, Daphnia magna, and Podocopida were used for acute aquatic toxicity test of 7 surfactants and 3 detergents. γtox values were plotted on surface tension curves, and the effect of water hardness on toxicity and surface tension were examined. Results showed that γtox varies greatly by kind of surfactant or detergent. Therefore, aquatic toxicity cannot only be explained by surface tension. The change of aquatic toxicity with varying water hardness, however, could be explained by the change of surface tension. Aquatic toxicity of LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) increased and aquatic toxicity of SOAP decreased with an increase of water hardness, but both γtox, values were constant. Aquatic toxicity was decreased by an addition of mud soil as adsorbent into surfactant solution. The toxicity change can be explained by the surface tension since γtox value of solution with and without mud soil were equal. These results showed that the change of aquatic toxicity of a surfactant caused by water property, such as water hardness, could be explained by the change of surface tension.
A novel polymer dispersant with a tri-block structure was designed. The tri-block polymer was composed of polyglycerin (PGL) with two dimethylpolysiloxane chains (DMPS) at both ends of the molecular structure. The high dispersibility of the dispersant was confirmed in both a model silica system and a sunscreen formulation. The apparent silica particle size was employed as an index for the dispensability for the dispersants. The novel dispersant showed 5 times more effective than conventional one. The flow properties of a sunscreen formulation containing titanium dioxide with the novel dispersant was Newtonian, indicating that the dispersibility of the dispersant was excellent. On the other hand, the formulation with conventional dispersant showed shear-thinning flow due to aggregation of the powder. These results mean that such a tri-block copolymer would make it possible to develop consumer demanded sunscreens.
We examined the efficacy of auraptene (AUR), an antioxidant agent of a citrus coumarin derivative, for suppressing gastric inflammation introduced by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in Mongolian gerbils (MGs). Hp-infected MGs were placed on diets containing 100 or 500 ppm AUR for 7 weeks. Real-time PCR was used to estimate the Hp population in glandular stomach lesions, and a histological assessment of inflammation was performed. At a dose of 500 ppm, AUR reduced the Hp population to 21.9±12.0% of the control group (p<0.05). However, no apparent differences were seen in hematoxylin and eosin sections between AUR-administered and control groups. We conclude that dietary supplementation with 500 ppm of AUR suppresses Hp colonization, but does not reduce gastric inflammation.
Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control) or used frying oil recovered from Japanese food manufacturing companies (recovered oil) for 12 weeks and subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to recovered oil were observed. There was a tendency toward higher consumption of the diet in the experimental group as compared to the control group. In the serum of the experimental group, no difference was detected in the levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. But many dark-red patches, necrosis, and bleeding were found in the livers of 75% of the experimental rats; these rats had extremely high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Average AST and ALT values of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the controls. The renal cells were also obviously damaged. These results raise the concern that frying oil contained in ready-made foods, snacks, etc., if deteriorated to an extent equal to or greater than that of the recovered oil, may be able to change human serum AST/ALT levels and damage the liver and kidneys.