The ruling that partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) are no longer “generally recognized as safe (GRAS),” has accelerated the replacement of PHO ingredients with fat alternatives having increasingly lower or no trans fat content. In the present study, we developed a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic procedure in conjunction with multivariate partial least squares regression (PLSR) and found it suitable for the accurate prediction of low (0.5%) total trans fat content, as percentage of total fat, measured as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), in the lipids extracted from 24 representative fast foods. This multivariate data analysis approach is relevant because the precision of the current univariate FTIR official method (AOCS Cd 14-09) is reportedly poor below 2% of total fat, while PLSR has allowed us to accurately predict the concentration of low trans fat in fast foods. The performance of a portable FTIR device was also evaluated and compared to that of a benchtop FTIR spectrometer. For both infrared data sets, PLSR-predicted concentrations of total trans FAME, ranging from approximately 0.47% to 11.40% of total FAME, were in good agreement with those determined by a primary reference gas chromatography (GC) method (R2>0.99); high prediction accuracy was also evidenced by low root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) values. The lowest RMSECV error of 0.12% was obtained with the portable device. The lowest total trans FAME concentration, determined by GC to be 0.42%, was accurately predicted by the portable FTIR/PLSR procedure as 0.47% of total FAME.
The effect of β-sitosteryl sulfate (PSO4) on the liposomal size, stability, fluidity, and dispersibility of DPPC liposomes prepared by vortex mixing, bath-sonication, and probe-sonication has been studied. PSO4 significantly decreases the particle size of the multilamellar liposomes (MLVs). The sizes of the vortexmixed and the bath-sonicated liposomes vary as a function of PSO4 concentration. On the other hand, PSO4 has only little effect on the particle sizes of probe sonicated liposomes. In some cases, the liposomal stability at higher PSO4 concentrations depends on the preparation method. PSO4 improves the dispersibility of the DPPC liposomes and enhances their hydration. It also increases the fluidity of the liposomes prepared by each method. Our results suggest that liposomes consisting of DPPC and PSO4 can be suitable as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical ingredient for the effective delivery of the active components into the body.
Protein denaturants play an important role in medical and biological research, and development of new denaturants is widely explored to study aging and various diseases. In this research, we treated lysozyme, a model protein, with photocatalysts of ground Rh-doped SrTiO3 (g-STO:Rh) and ground Rh-Sb-co-doped SrTiO3 (g-STO:Rh/Sb) under visible light irradiation to explore the potential of those photocatalysts as denaturants. SDS-PAGE showed that photocatalysis with g-STO:Rh induced the fragmentation of lysozyme into unidentifiable decomposition products. BCA and Bradford protein assays indicated that the peptide bonds and basic, aromatic and N-terminal amino acid residues in lysozyme were denaturated by g-STO:Rh photocatalysis. The denaturation of those amino acids, as quantified by the decreased solubility of lysozyme, was estimated to be more severe by Bradford protein assay than by BCA protein assay. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of lysozyme revealed that the secondary structure was denatured by g-STO:Rh photocatalysis, indicating that g-STO:Rh photocatalysis is especially effective against the amino acid residues that form the secondary structure via hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the lytic activity of lysozyme was reduced by g-STO:Rh photocatalysis, owing to denaturation of the enzyme. The visible-light-responsive photocatalyst of g-STO:Rh/Sb accelerates the oxidation reaction and has stronger oxidizing power than g-STO:Rh. Lysozyme was denatured more quickly by g-STO:Rh/Sb photocatalysis than by g-STO:Rh according to analysis by SDS-PAGE, CD spectroscopy, BCA and Bradford protein assays, and lytic activity. These results suggest that higher photocatalytic activity induces more significant denaturation of lysozyme, implying that the main factor of photocatalytic denaturation of lysozyme is oxidation. It should be noted that, as far as we know, this is the first report for denaturation of protein using visible-light-responsive photocatalyst.
Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) has been shown strong antioxidative and immune propertise, but the precise potency and action mechanisms remain largely elusive. This study is to dissect the different fractions’ antioxidant power and antiinflammatory function. We extracted 4 fractions from China original dill with ether (DI-E), ethyl acetate (DI-EA), n-butanol (DI-B) and water (DI-W), and performed 4 different kinds of antioxidative analysis together with vitamine C (Vc): DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and TPTZ-FRAP. For correlated compounds in antioxidant assays Folin-Ciocalteu’s analysis was performed. For antiinflammation, cell proliferation by MTT, NO molecules and interleukin-1 and 6 in supernatant were detected by Griess reaction and Elisa, respectively, and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed by RT-PCR. The strength of antioxidant activity was Vc > DI-EA > DI-B > DI-W > DI-E. Folin-Ciocalteu’s analysis showed that antioxidant power was correlated to phenolic compounds. However, in antiinflammatory assays DI-E was most active one by cell proliferation, iNOS’s gene expression, and secretion of interleukin IL-1 and 6 in macrophage RAW264.7. The antioxidant fraction and antiinflammatory fraction of the dill were determined. The certain fractions of dill may be strong at antioxidation, but weak at antiinflammation, vice versa. Thus dill has anti-ageing and anticancer potential, a good resource for functional food and ancillary drugs of rehabilitation.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a lethal vascular disease that involves localized dilation of the thoracic aorta. The detailed mechanisms of TAA development and rupture are not fully understood. Recent reports have shown that the abnormal appearance of adipocytes in the vascular wall is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression or rupture. However, the presence of adipocytes in the TAA wall remains unknown. In this study, we observed the pathology of thoracic aortae to investigate whether adipocytes abnormally appear in the TAA wall. Abnormal appearance of adipocytes was mainly observed in the adventitia in the TAA vascular walls. The adipocyte area in the vascular wall was significantly increased in the TAA wall compared to the control wall. Destruction of collagen fibers, and increase in areas positive for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9, and Mac387+ macrophages were observed in the area around adipocytes in the vascular wall. This study demonstrated the appearance of adipocytes in the TAA wall. The accumulation of adipocytes in AAA wall reportedly facilitates the destruction of fibers surrounding adipocytes, and thereby, leads to vascular wall weakness. Therefore, adipocytes in the TAA wall can be associated with the weakening of the vascular wall as well as the AAA wall. The appropriate control of adipocytes in the vascular wall may prevent weakening of the vascular wall in TAA.
The aim of the present research was to Study the prevention of dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and fatty liver as risk factors for cardiovascular disease via intervention by borage oil (B) and fish oil (F) with or without turmeric (T) and alpha-tocopherols (TC). Fatty acids were assessed in both oils while curcuminoids were determined in turmeric. Rats were divided into; first group fed on balanced diet and designated as normal control (NC), second fed on dyslipidemic and steatohepatitis (DS) inducer diet which represented the DS control group and groups 3-6 fed on DS inducer diet with daily oral administration of B, B+T+TC, F and F+T+TC; respectively for 5 weeks. Liver fat and plasma lipid profile, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarker and liver and heart histopathology were assessed. Results showed gamma linolenic to be 21.01% in B. F contained eicosapentaenoic as 22.768% and docosahexaenoic acid as 13.574%.Total curcuminoids were 4.63 mg/g turmeric. The DS control group showed significant dyslipidemia, elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha and liver fat with significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to NC. The different treatments produced significant improvement in all the parameters and histopathology. F was superior to B in ameliorating liver histopathological changes while B was more efficient in elevating TAC. B was more promising in improving lipid profile and liver fat compared to B + T + TC, while the latter was superior in improving MDA and liver histopathology. Fish oil was more efficient than F+TC+T except for TAC and high density lipoprotein cholesterol which were more improved on addition of TC and T. Conclusion: Borage and fish oil with or without antioxidants protect from cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases with variable degrees.
As the seed extract from Camellia japonica (CJ) contains saponins, inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase activity and body fat accumulation are expected. To investigate the anti-obesity effect of CJ seed extract, ICR mice were fed with a high-fat diet that was either supplemented or not with 1% CJ seed extract for 53 days. Including CJ seed extract in the high-fat diets of mice increased fecal fat excretion and decreased the body weight gain and lipid parameters in plasma and in the liver. In addition, lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia was delayed by a single administration of CJ in ddY mice. Small intestinal transit was increased in ddY mice that received the CJ seed extract, but gastric emptying remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that CJ seed extract can suppress excess fat absorption, which can lead to the prevention of diet-induced obesity.
In this work, we investigated insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oils extracted from Ajania nitida and Ajania nematoloba against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. The components of essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The main components of A. nitida oil were camphor (20.76%), thujone (18.64%), eucalyptol (13.42%), borneol (8.32%) and those of A. nematoloba oil were β-pinene (34.72%), eucalyptol (24.97%) and verbenol (20.39%). The results showed that the two essential oils possessed insecticidal and repellent activities against two species of insects. A. nitida oil possessed contact and fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 30.10 µg/adult and LC50 = 21.07 mg/L air) and L.serricorne (LD50 = 17.51 µg/adult and LC50 = 11.23 mg/L air). A.nematoloba oil showed contact and fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 102.29µg/adult and LC50 = 69.45 mg/L air) and contact toxicity against L.serricorne (LD50 = 53.43 µg/adult), but no obvious fumigant effect was observed against L.serricorne. Both of essential oils possessed strong repellent activity against T. castaneum and certain repellent activity against L.serricorne. Especially, A. nematoloba oil showed the same level percentage repellency as DEET(the positve control) against T. castaneum. The results indicated that the essential oils of A. nitida and A. nematoloba had the potential to be developed as natural insecticides and repellents for the control of T. castaneum and L.serricorne.
The surface and interfacial properties of casein-hydrolyzed peptides were evaluated using measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, surface viscosity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM). In this study, high internal oil phase emulsion (HIPE) gels were successfully prepared, using the surface and interfacial properties of casein peptides. The casein peptides exhibited surface and interfacial activities. The estimated critical micelle concentration (CMC) and γCMC values were 3.0 mg/mL and 47.8 mN/m, and the average size of casein peptide micelles was 13.2 ± 1.7 nm. The surface shear viscosity of an aqueous casein peptide solution at 10 mg/mL was 1603 µPa ms, which is fifteen times larger than that of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 106 µPa ms). The larger surface viscosity of casein peptide adsorbed layer could stabilize emulsions and prevent flocculation and coalescence. High internal oil phase gel emulsions were then prepared by slowly adding oil and polyisobutene into an aqueous casein peptide solution/glycerol mixture with different compositions. Based on the pseudo ternary 15 wt% aqueous casein peptide solution/polyisobutene/glycerol phase diagram, the HIPE containing the maximum 88.1 wt% (91.5 vol%) of oil is obtained by the addition of 0.36 wt% of casein peptides. The use of only a small amount of protein-hydrolyzed peptides instead of the commonly used synthetic surfactants for HIPE preparation has great advantages for the widespread application of HIPE technology.
The Salisapilia species are estuarine oomycetes of the mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystem. To date, reports on the secondary metabolites and biological activities of these microorganisms are wanting. In this study, secondary metabolites in broth ethyl acetate extracts (BEAE) and mycelial ethyl acetate extracts (MEAE) of Salisapilia tartarea S1YP1 isolated from yellow senescent mangrove leaves were screened by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Extracts were assayed for antioxidant, antibacterial, α- glucosidase inhibition, and cytotoxic activity. The TLC detected anthraquinones, anthrones, flavonoids, phenols, and triterpenes in both BEAE and MEAE. Coumarins were detected in BEAE but not in MEAE. Quantifying the total phenolics and total flavonoids content of the extracts in terms of gallic acid and quercetin equivalents, respectively shows that BEAE has higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than MEAE. BEAE exhibited significant antioxidant activities through measurements of free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide, and superoxide anion radicals as well as the ability to chelate Fe2+ metal ion. BEAE significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner α-glucosidase activity and selectively inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation. Antioxidant, α- glucosidase inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities have not been observed for MEAE. Both BEAE and MEAE do not have antibacterial activity.
Tetracosahexaenoic acid (THA; 24:6n-3) is a natural, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3HUFA) that exists in fish, including Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) and the flathead flounder (Hippoglossoides dubius). In this study, natural n-3HUFAs, i.d. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and THA were administrated to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice for 4 weeks and the liver and serum lipid profiles, hepatic enzyme activity, expression of mRNA related to lipid metabolism, and adiponectin serum levels were then analyzed. The results showed that THA had the highest activity in suppressing hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increase in liver weight among the test groups. Furthermore, THA increased adiponectin levels in serum. These results indicate that THA is an excellent natural n-3HUFA that can suppress the development of metabolic syndromes and circulatory system diseases. The order of the n-3HUFA activity was THA > DHA > EPA in almost all the factors examined here. In a previous study of ours, the order was DHA > DPA > EPA, so the final order was summarized as THA > DHA > DPA > EPA. This order clearly translates to the rule that “the number of double bonds and carbon atoms in the n-3HUFA structure relates to their clinical functions”.
Surface properties of cast films of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) containing 1 wt% of several glycolipid-type biosurfactants (BSs) were investigated. The wettability of PLA films containing a homologue of mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL-B), lactone-form sophorolipid (LSL), or cellobiose lipid (CL) was drastically higher than that of untreated PLA and several synthetic surfactants-containing PLA. Surface wettability was also dependent on the hydrophilicity of the substrate used during solvent casting of the PLA films. The wetting behavior of the opposing sides of MEL-B-containing films prepared on glass substrates differed significantly; the contact angle on the side of the film that had been in contact with the glass surface was significantly lower than that obtained on the side of the film that had been in contact with air. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis results showed that the MEL in MEL-B-containing thin PLA cast films was localized to a thin surface layer. These results suggest self-assembly of MEL-B and micro-phase separation between the PLA matrix and MEL-B domains. This resulted in the localization and orientation of MEL-B at the surface of the cast PLA film, which determined its specific wetting behavior.