Used edible oil recovered from the food industry in Japan amounts to a few hundred thousand tons annually. Some recovered oil of good quality is used as a fatty acid source, as feed oil, in paint, and so on, after a simple refining method, but the rest is burned or discarded despite a relatively low level of deterioration. In our previous paper, two reclamation methods were proposed for low-grade used edible oil having Gardner color≥11 to produce non-food industrial oil of Gardner color<7. In the present study one of the methods mentioned above, refining with barium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide bleaching, was improved to be practically feasible in existing facilities. In addition, the mechanism of successful reclamation was investigated. The results of the investigation suggested that barium hydroxide treatment of used edible oil rendered lipophilic proteins, amino acids, and other inhibitors of hydrogen peroxide bleaching, easily removable from the oil by washing with water and filtration through adsorbent. The oil thus obtained was bleached effectively down to Gardner color 4-6, and its odor was dramatically improved by hydrogen peroxide treatment.
An optimization study has been carried-out to evaluate synergistic effects of natural antioxidants on physico-chemical characteristics of flaxseed oil during heating. Results showed that the use of oleoresin rosemary extract, sage extract and citric acid improved the stability of the oil during 20 times of frying. This study also revealed that the addition of these antioxidants effectively retarded flaxseed oil deterioration after as early as 5 times of frying of potato chips. Analyses from Response Surface Methodology (RSM) indicated that for all physico-chemical characteristics of flaxseed oil evaluated, all mathematical models or equations could be developed with high confidence, where all R2 values greater than 0.87. From this study, the highest R2 (0.98) was shown by yellow colour, followed by absorbance at 268 nm (0.97), saturated /unsaturated fatty acid ratio (0.95), absorbance at 232 nm (0.93), and AnV (0.92). R2 values for four other parameters were 0.88 (PV and IV) and 0.87 (FFA and red colour). This meant that the R2 values obtained from this study were all satisfactory and considered accurate enough, not only for prediction purposes, but also for optimization purposes.
In the present paper a new, very simple, rapid and economical qualitative technique is being reported. By means of this technique, adulteration of argemone oil in mustard oil can be detected. In the test, a small quantity of suspected oil successively treated with phenol and conc. sulphuric acid a deep red colour develops. Development of red colour in above test is due to formation of quinonoid compound and hydrolysed sanguinarine salt which indicates the presence of argemone oil as adulterant in test sample. Up to 0.05% argemone oil adulteration can be detected with the new technique.
The study of the lipid matter content from the different organs of Pomfret (Pampus argenteus) fish indicates that a major amount of lipid accumulates in the brain while the organs like digestive tract and muscle contain relatively much lower amount. The composition of the lipid matter of various organs points out that cholesterol is in much greater proportion than that of the phospholipid. Cholesterol is present in highest amount in the brain lipid compared with other organs while the content of phospholipid is lowest in the digestive tract. The fatty acid composition reveals that the lipids of each organ of pomfret fish are enriched in the saturated fatty acids. Also a distinct variation exists in the amount of the individual saturated fatty acids. The eye ball lipid has the highest amount of saturated fatty acid (84%) followed by digestive tract (69%), muscle (52%) and brain (34%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids are the next major fatty acids, with significant amount of C22:6 fatty acid.
Experimental animal life span with dietary oil administration has been found to differ for stroke-prone spontaneously hypersensitive (SHRSP) rats and senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM-P8), but this parameter for the latter given rapeseed oil and perilla oil has yet to be examined in detail and hence the present study was carried out. Male SAM-P8 mice were provided a test diet prepared from soybean oil, rapeseed oil, perilla oil or olive oil, which served as 10% weight of fat intake. Body weight and food intake were found essentially the same in all animal groups, as was also mean life span. The effects of dietary oils on life span would thus appear to differ according to animal strain.
Micelle formation in aqueous solution of novel hybrid surfactants with phosphate head group was investigated. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were determined as a function of temperature by surface tension measurements. The results of electrical conductivity measurements were analyzed according to the mixed electrolyte model of the micellar solution to estimate the micellar aggregation number and the degree of counter-ion binding on the micelle. Thermodynamic parameters for the micelle formation were estimated on the basis of these results. Discussion is given on the micelle formation of the present surfactant species comparing with the sulfonate-type hybrid surfactants.
Kinetic resolution of (R)- and (S)-3-alkanols by enzymatic transesterification has been studied using Pseudomonas cepacia lipase, isopropenyl acetate as an acetylating reagent, five alcohols and some organic solvents. The optical resolution data did not fit the previously reported format: the enantioselectivity (E: the rate ratio as the reaction is irreversible) showed the maxima against the extent of conversion (c) for all system used and the correlation between log E and c was different depending on the substrate and solvent. The optical resolution of (S)-3-alkanol with above 95% of enantiomeric excess (ee) was attained by controlling c. In contrast (R)-3-alkanol with ee>95% could not be resolved from (RS)-3-alkanol even at low c because of the moderate enantioselectivity. Kinetic resolution of enantiomers in enantiomerically enriched alcohols was carried out: the ee values of resolved alcohols showed an excellent agreement with those determined by the previously reported equations using the optical resolution data and (R)- and (S)-3-alkanols with high ee could be resolved by controlling c and the initial optical purity of substrate. Based on the above observations, optically pure (R)- and (S)-3-octanols (ee≥99%) were resolved from racemic 3-octanol by repeating the transesterification three times and twice, respectively.
Reconstituted hemoglobins modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) containing iron(III) and manganese(III) complexes of meso-tetra(N-methylpridinium-x-yl)porphyrin ([MTxMePyP]-Hb-PEG, M = Fe and Mn, x = 2 and 4) were found to serve as excellent superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics under physiological conditions. IC50 was 2.3 μ M and the pseudo-first order rate constant was 2.2 × 106 M-1s-1 for reaction of MnT2MePyP-Hb-PEG with a superoxide anion radical as detemined by conventional cytochrome c assay and stopped flow analysis, respectively. Stability toward H2O2 by surface modification of reconstituted hemoglobins with PEG chains helped prevent aggregation with other proteins such as albumin.