The thermodynamic equations to quantitatively well explain the temperature and pressure effects on the solubility of surfactants in water have been obtained by the application of the small system thermodynamics to a multi-component micellar solution coexisting at equilibrium with the crystalline solid phases of the component surfactants. The equation theoretically predicts the existence of the critical micellization temperature, the Krafft temperature, in the temperature effect on solubility at given pressure, and that of the critical micellization pressure; the Tanaka pressure, in the pressure effect on solubility at given temperature.
We examined the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on acetaminophen - induced hepatotoxicity using two different administration methods; i.e, feeding rats with BAH- and BHT- added diets, and by direct oral administration. In the former case, BHA and BHT (0.5% each) were separately added to experimental diets which were given to rats for 7 days, and then after a 16 h - fast, APAP (500mg / kg) was intraperitneally given. The oral administration of BHA or BHT (125 mg / kg body weight) was carried out 2 h before the APAP treatment. The elevation of the plasma AST and ALT activities as an index of liver injury was significantly suppressed in the BHA- and BHT- fed groups at 24 h after the APAP treatment and significantly lower levels in the BHA oral pretreatment group were seen when compared with those in the APAP group. On the other hand, the BHT oral pretreatment group showed rather high AST and ALT activities. The restraint function was clarified when BHA and BHT were fed, and also when BHA was orally administered, although a similar function was not observed in case of the oral administration of BHT. The inductions of Hsp25 and Hsp70i by APAP were not depressed by the BHA administration, but were suppressed by the BHT except in the case of Hsp70i in the group orally given BHT. These results suggest that BHT blocks NAPQI to covalently bind to the cellular macromolecules, although BHA does not.
Hybrid liposomes were prepared by mixing glycerophospholipids with glyceroglycolipids. The effects of hybrid liposomes on Caco-2 cells were investigated. Growth inhibition of cells was determined with sodium 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium dye reduction assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured for assessing the cell differentiation induced by sodium butyrate (NaBT). Growth of Caco-2 cells was inhibited at 48 h after addition of all four types hybrid liposomes (PC/DGDG, PC/SQDG, PS/DGDG and PS/SQDG) while at 72 h growth inhibition was significant for all treatments except the hybrid liposome of phosphatidylcholine and digalactosyldiacylglycerol under concentrations of 50 μM glycerophospholipids with 50 μM glyceroglycolipids. Alkaline phosphatase activity of Caco-2 cells increased significantly when cells were treated in combination of hybrid liposomes and NaBT at 72 h, indicating that hybrid liposomes enhanced cell differentiation induced with NaBT.
The aim of the present work was to examine the antioxidative effect of EGCG after administering it perorally to rats at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The antioxidative activity of rat plasma, and plasma levels and tissue distribution of EGCG were determined. The results showed that oral administration of EGCG increased the antioxidative activity of rat plasma, measured by the preservation of the inner lipophilic antioxidant α-tocopherol during exvivo oxidation by hydrophilic radical initiator, at 2nd, 5th and 24th hours post dose. The levels of the total EGCG in rat plasma were 0.82 and 0.5 μ M at 2nd and 5th hours respectively as measured by developed high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection (HPLC - ED). The highest levels of EGCG were detected in rat small intestine and colon and were in the range 4.75 - 24.41 nmol/g. The EGCG levels in rat kidneys, liver, spleen, lung, brain, bladder and prostate were in the range 0.1 - 1 nmol/g. In conclusion, we showed that oral administration of EGCG at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight increased the antioxidative strength of rat plasma, preserving α-tocopherol during exvivo oxidation. In small intestine and colon EGCG reached values having anticancer effects in cell culture experiments.
This study investigates the effects of margarine containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT-M) on diet-induced thermogenesis(DIT) and was conducted in double-blind, cross-over design. Twenty-five healthy subjects in the first part of the study (study1) and 7 healthy women in the second (study2) participated in this examination. Long-chain triglycerides (LCT) were prepared with a blend of rapeseed oil and soybean oil (LCT-M). Sandwiches with MCT-M or LCT-M and clear soup were used as test food in the first part and in the second pound cake and ice cream containing MCT-M or LCT-M. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured by indirect calorimetry. Resting energy expenditure was determined based on there parameters, applying the equation of Weir. Increase in oxygen consumption after eating MCT-M sandwiches at 60 and 120min was found significantly greater than for LCT-M sandwiches, as was also noted after eating MCT-M pound cake and MCT-M ice cream at 60 min. DIT after eating sandwiches with MCT-M during 6h was clearly more than noted for LCT-M, and after pound cake and ice cream consumption with MCT-M during 4h significantly exceeded that for LCT-M. The intake of MCT-M would thus appear to lead to greater DIT, compared to that following LCT-M consumption, irrespective of the made of food preparation.
An enzymatic method has been developed for the preparation of dihydroxystearic acid ester in high conversion (∼90%) by esterification of 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid and 1-octanol at moderate temperature (50 °C) using immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) as biocatalyst. The effects of enzyme dosage, reaction temperature, reaction time and reusability of the enzyme in esterification were studied.
Changes in old rice smell of milled rice were examined with focus on the percentage composition of carbonyl and sulfur compounds. Such study has not yet been published. The rice samples (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica co. Nihonbare) were produced in Shiga Prefecture, Japan, and harvested from 1996 to 2001. The analysis focused on six carbonyl compounds, 1-propanal (1), 1-butanal (2), ethyl methyl ketone (3), 1-pentanal (4), 1-hexanal (5) and 1-heptanal (6), all of which are recognized as a contributing factor to old rice smell, and eight sulfur compounds. Aroma distinction analysis by the Aromalizer revealed a clear relationship between the age of the rice and old rice smell. We found a clear relationship between changes in the properties of cooked rice and the harvest year from the evaluation of cooked rice samples by aroma analysts.