Dietary effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) and fucoxanthin (Fc) on abdominal fat weight were determined using KK-Ay obese mouse. Experimental diet contained MCT(0.9%), Fc (0.1%), or MCT (0.9%) +Fc (0.1%). The abdominal fat weight of mice fed with Fc was significantly lower than that of mice fed with MCT. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a key molecule for metabolic thermogenesis, was clearly expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed Fc, but little expression in that of the mice fed MCT. The anti-obesity effect of Fc was increased by mixing Fc with MCT. This increase would be due to the increase in the absorption rate of Fc by MCT.
Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based ‘green’ offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations.
Vegetable oils are important substrates for the development of biobased products that may replace products derived from petroleum. Carbonated methyl soyates were prepared at atmospheric pressures from epoxy methyl soyate by the introduction of carbon dioxide at the oxirane position. Carbonation was performed by sparging carbon dioxide gas through the neat epoxy esters at atmospheric pressure in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide catalyst. Analysis of reaction mixtures showed that 42% of the epoxide groups were carbonated after 18 h at 80°C with 1 wt% catalyst compared to 63% using liquid carbon dioxide at 54 atm pressure.
2,3-Bis(undecyl)succinic acid, succinic acid type Gemini surfactant, was successfully synthesized from Corynomicolic acid by the functional interconversion of OH of Corynomicolic acid to COOH via (1) mesylation of OH of syn-isomer, (2) elimination of methanesulfonate group using base to E-α,β-unsaturated ester, (3) Michael addition of CN- with 18-crown-6 and (4) hydrolysis. In most hydrolysis conditions, a mixture of syn- and anti-2,3-bis(undecyl)succinic acid was obtained, but hydrolysis in 75% H2SO4 gave only anti-2,3-bis(undecyl)succinic anhydride. After converting a mixture of syn- and anti-2,3-bis(undecyl)succinic acids to corresponding acid anhydrides, syn- and anti-anhydride isomers were separated by column chromatography, and by following hydrolysis syn- and anti-2,3-bis(undecyl)succinic acid was selectively prepared. Based on the surface tension measurement, the effect of stereochemistry on surface tension isotherms was discussed in terms of the hydrophobic interaction between two alkyl groups and the electrostatic repulsion between two hydrophilic COO- groups.
The effects of plant and yeast cerebrosides on melanin formation were examined in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Addition of yeast cerebroside significantly reduced melanin content to the same level as that of arbutin in control cells, although there was no suppression by plant cerebrosides and bovine brain cerebroside up-regulated melanin formation. None of the bovine brain cerebrosides examined had any effect on tyrosinase activity, but yeast cerebroside reduced the contents of tyrosinase . The results of the present study clearly showed that melanin formation is regulated by several different cerebrosides via tyrosinase. In addition, the findings presented here suggest that cerebrosides containing a 9-methyl type sphingoid base, such as yeast cerebroside, may be useful as skincare products for suppressing melanin formation.
The culture characteristics, carotenoid production, and associated biosynthetic pathway of strain T-1 were examined. As a result of examining the culture temperature and light irradiation, an increase of neurosporaxanthin and neurosporaxanthin β-D-glucopyranoside was observed at a low temperature and 0 lx. It was suggested that highly polar carotenoids, such as neurosporaxanthin, and carotenoid glycosides were involved in the stabilization of membrane during nutrition storage other than the defense function of fungus bodies. Strain T-1 produced lycopene, β-carotene, γ-carotene, torulene, neurosporaxanthin, and neurosporaxanthin β-D-glucopyranoside, as assessed by HPLC, LC-MS, and NMR analysis. Carotenoid biosynthesis begins with neurosporene, passing to lycopene and γ-carotene through cyclization, and produces β-carotene. In addition, it is saturated, γ-carotene is converted to torulene, and neurosporaxanthin is produced. Thus, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in strain T-1 was estimated.
Through the 1H and 13C NMR measurements for the symmetrical β-diketones such as 2,4-pentanedione and 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione and unsymmetrical one such as 1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione at various concentrations and temperatures, we confirmed that 1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione in CDCl3 exists as monomers in its relatively low concentration. In addition, the 1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione in CDCl3 exists not as a keto-form but as two kinds of cis-enol forms. The proton transfer between the two kinds of cis-enols for 1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione was discussed thermodynamically; it is concluded that the OH proton of enol of 1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione is considerably located near the oxygen atom attached to the carbon atom linking to a phenyl group.