Noble blended oils (canola: palm oil = 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 and 7:3) were prepared and their frying qualities were evaluated. Frying qualities such as fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value, viscosity, smoke point, color, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation were measured to elucidate the optimum blend ratio of canola and palm oil. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid of the blended oils was higher than that of palm oil after frying 50 times. The blended oil (3:7, Ca: Pa) had a relatively high oxidative stability and its peroxide values were 44.2–70.7 meq/kg after frying. The 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil had excellent flavor, taste, and texture compared to those of the other frying oils as a result of a sensory evaluation of raw and fried potatoes. The results suggest that the 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil is a good alternative oil for frying potatoes.
Mango kernel fat (MKF) has received attention in recent years due to the resemblance between its characteristics and those of cocoa butter (CB). In this work, fatty acid (FA) composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of MKFs obtained from four varieties of Thai mangoes: Keaw-Morakot (KM), Keaw-Sawoey (KS), Nam-Dokmai (ND) and Aok-Rong (AR), were characterized. The fat content of the mango kernels was 6.40, 5.78, 5.73 and 7.74% (dry basis) for KM, KS, ND and AR, respectively. The analysis of FA composition revealed that all four cultivars had oleic and stearic acids as the main FA components with ND and AR exhibiting highest and lowest stearic acid content, respectively. ND had the highest slip melting point and solid fat content (SFC) followed by KS, KM and AR. All fat samples exhibited high SFC at 20℃ and below. They melted slowly as the temperature increased and became complete liquids as the temperature approached 35°C. During static isothermal crystallization at 20°C, ND displayed the highest Avrami rate constant k followed by KS, KM and AR, indicating that the crystallization was fastest for ND and slowest for AR. The Avrami exponent n of all samples ranged from 0.89 to1.73. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that all MKFs crystallized into a mixture of pseudo-β', β', sub-β and β structures with β' being the predominant polymorph. Finally, the crystals of the kernel fats from all mango varieties exhibited spherulitic morphology.
A high-nervonic acid (cis-15-tetracosenoic acid, C24:1, n-9)-producing filamentous fungus of the Mortierella species was discovered among soil filamentous fungi. The filamentous fungal strain –RD000969– was isolated from soil collected in Kanagawa Prefecture (Japan) and was found to accumulate nervonic acid at a rate of 6.94% of the total cellular fatty acids. The base sequences of 28S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS 5.8S rDNA showed 100% homology with Mortierella capitata CBS 293.96. In addition to nervonic acid, strain RD000969 produced a large amount of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (C20:1, 12.22%; C22:1, 4.07%; C26:1, 5.91%) and a small amount of ultra-long-chain fatty acids (C28:1, 0.44%; C30:1, 0.06%; C32:1, trace). In the fungal cells, 98.87% of nervonic acid was localized at the sn-1,3 position of triacylglycerol. Nervonic acid production was maximum (186.3 mg・L–1) when the fungus was cultured in potato dextrose (PD) medium containing yeast extract, CaCl2, and MgSO4・7H2O.
Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.
Here, we describe the formation of J-aggregates triggered by isomerization of an azobenzene derivative, N-[p-[(p-dodecylphenylazo)phenyloxy]dodecylpyridinium bromide (AzP), in mixed Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films that contain an amphiphilic spiropyran with a methoxy group at the 5’ position, MeO-SP1822. Pure LB films of MeO-SP1822 consist of multilayer domains embedded in a monolayer. UV irradiation of the films causes the isomerization of MeO-SP1822 to its merocyanine form, MeO-MC1822. Pure LB films of AzP comprise finger-like domains and granular domains. Irradiating mixed films of MeO-SP1822 and AzP with alternating UV and visible light causes J-aggregation of MeO-MC1822, with the amount of J-aggregates reaching a maximum at a 1:1 molar ratio. J-aggregation occurs in flat finger-like structures originating in the AzP-rich granular domains that are located on top of the MeO-MC1822-rich multilayer domains. J-aggregates are also present under the AzP-rich granular domains, though these domains do not serve as nucleation sites for the finger-like structures. We propose that granular domains serving as nucleation sites are partially buried in the multilayer domains, whereas those triggering the J-aggregation of MeO-MC1822 under the granular domains are situated on top of the multilayer domains.
Antibiotic activity was compared for Cryptococcus humicola cellobiose lipids, the mixture of 2,3,4-О-triacetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-(6-О-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→16)-2,16-dihydroxyhexodecanoic acid and 2,3,4-О-triacetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-(6-О-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→16)-2,17,18-trihydroxyoctotodecanoic acid, and the commercial sophorose lipid mixture of a mono-acetylated acidic sophorose lipid and a di-acetylated acidic sophorose lipid, both containing the C18:1 fatty acid residue. The MIC values of cellobiose lipids were 0.005 and 0.04 mg/mL for Filobasidiella neoformans and Candida tropicalis, respectively. The MIC values of sophorose lipids were 1 and 15 mg/mL for F. neoformans and C. tropicalis, respectively. MIC values for some bacteria were in the range of 10-30 mg/mL for both glycolipid preparations. Both sophorose lipids and cellobiose lipids displayed a membranedamaging activity against F. neoformans. The treatment with these glycolipids reduces the content of ATP in the cells of test cultures and results in their staining with ethidium bromide.
Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2′–azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.
Novel lipoamino acids were prepared with the coupling of sapienic acid [(Z)-6-hexadecenoic acid] with α - amino group of amino acids and the resulting N-sapienoyl amino acids were tested for their cytotoxicity activities against four cancer based cell lines. Initially, sapienic acid was synthesized by the Wittig coupling of triphenylphosphonium bromide salt of 6-bromohexanoic acid and decanal with a Z specific reagent. The prepared sapienic acid was subsequently converted to its acid chloride which was further coupled with amino acids by the Schotten-Baumann reaction to form N-sapienoyl amino acid conjugates. Structural characterization of the prepared N-sapienoyl amino acid derivatives was done by spectral data (IR, mass spectra and NMR). These lipoamino acid derivatives were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation. Cytotoxicity evaluation against four cancer cell lines showed that N-sapienoyl isoleucine was active against three cell lines whereas other derivatives either showed activity against only one or two cell lines with very moderate activity and two derivatives were observed to be inactive against the tested cell lines.
The chemical composition of the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts of Brassica rapa cv. “yukina” was analyzed using GC-MS, GC-PFPD, and GC-O. A total of 50 compounds were identified. The most prominent constituents were (E)-1,5-heptadiene (40.27%), 3-methyl-3-butenenitrile (25.97%) and 3-phenylpropanenitrile (12.41%). With regard to aroma compounds, 12 compounds were identified by GC-O analysis. The main aroma-active compounds were dimethyl tetrasulfide (sulphury-cabbage, FD = 64), 3-phenylpropanenitrile (nutty, FD = 64), 3-methylindole (pungent, FD = 64), and methional (potato, FD = 32). The antioxidant activity of the aroma-active compounds of the oil was determined using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. The ORAC values were found to be 785 ± 67 trolox equivalents (μmol TE/g) for B. rapa cv. “yukina” oil. The results obtained showed that the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts is a good dietary source of antioxidants.
In this study, the characteristic odorants of the volatile oils from Pleurotus species (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 52 and 54 components (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus, respectively) were identified, representing about 98.8% and 85.1% of the volatile oils, respectively. The main components of the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil were palmitic acid (82, 38.0%), oleic acid (86, 25.0%) and linoleic acid (85, 9.7%). The main components of the P. cystidiosus oil, palmitic acid (82, 25.8%), indole (54, 9.1%) and myristic acid (77, 5.3%). Regarding the aroma components, 16 and 13 components were identified in the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus oils respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that methional, 1-octen-3-ol and nonanal are the main aroma-active components of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil. On the other hands, dimethyl trisulfide and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of the P. cystidiosus oil.
This study was aimed to analyze and identify the antioxidant constituents of the essential oil of Bunium persicum (Apiaceae) fruit. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS. The essential oil was tested for antioxidant capacity in DPPH radical scavenging and linoleic acid/β-carotene assays. The TLC-bioautography method based on DPPH radical assay and GC analyses were carried out to characterize the major antioxidant compounds in the essential oil. GC analyses showed the presence of sixteen compounds with p-cymene (31.1%), cuminaldehyde (22.2%), and γ-terpinene (11.4%) as the main components in the essential oil. The oil exhibited good radical scavenging [IC50 (DPPH・) = 4.47 (3.96 – 5.05) mg/mL] and antilipid peroxidation [IC50 (β-carotene bleaching) = 0.22 (0.16 – 0.31) mg/mL] activities. The TLC tests resulted in identification of cuminaldehyde, p-cymene-7-ol, and cuminyl acetate as the main constituents of the active oil fraction.