Peanuts are usually with high moisture after harvest and must be dried to prevent mildew. Hot air drying is the most commonly used method for peanut drying. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drying temperatures on the peanut qualities. In this paper, fresh peanuts were dried with solar radiation (control group) and hot air at 35-60°C until the moisture content of peanut reduced below 10%. The physical (texture, damaged percentage of red testa and breakage percentage of peanut kernel), physiological (germination) and biochemical (the contents of vitamin E and aflatoxin B1; acidity values, iodine values, peroxide values and fatty acid composition of peanut oil; solubility, emulsifying, foaming, water-holding capacity and oil-binding capacity of peanut protein) properties of peanut kernel were determined under different drying conditions (solar radiation, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, 60°C). The results showed that hot air temperatures had obvious influences on peanut qualities. The damaged percentage of red testa and breakage percentage of peanut kernel increased remarkably when the drying temperatures were above 45°C. Meanwhile, when drying temperatures were more than 45°C, the acid value and peroxide value of the extracted oil increased significantly. Furthermore, some properties exhibited prominent changes when the temperatures were higher than 50°C, such as hardness, brittleness, germination percentage, and the Vitamin E content of peanut kernel. In addition, the research results revealed that hot air can increase hydrophobicity of peanut protein and affect the functional properties of peanut protein. Therefore, it could be concluded that peanut should be dried by hot air below 45°C for quality maintenance. It also provided reference to choose suitable drying temperatures based on the final use of peanut.
Allium ampeloprasum L., commonly known as wild leek, is an edible vegetable that has been cultivated for centuries. However, no detailed studies have been undertaken to valorize A. ampeloprasum seed oil. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of A. ampeloprasum seed oil. The seed oil content was found to be 18.20%. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that linoleic acid (71.65%) was the dominant acid, followed by oleic acid (14.11%) and palmitic acid (7.11%). A. ampeloprasum seed oil exhibited an oxidative stability of 5.22 h. Moreover, γ- and δ-tocotrienols were the major tocols present (79.56 and 52.08 mg/100 g oil, respectively). The total flavonoid content (16.64 µg CE /g oil) and total phenolic content (62.96 µg GAE /g oil) of the seed oil were also determined. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as evaluated using the ABTS assay (136.30 µM TEAC/g oil), was found to be significant. These findings indicate that A. ampeloprasum seeds can be regarded as a new source of edible oil having health benefits and nutritional properties.
A study was carried out to evaluate oil contents, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of several walnut types in relation to roasting process. The major fatty acid identified was linoleic acid in both roasted and unroasted walnut oils. Linoleic acid contents of unroasted walnut oil varied from 46.44 (Type 9) and 63.59% (Type 7), while the linoleic acid contents of roasted walnut oils at 120℃/h ranged from 55.95% (Type 3) to 64.86% (Type 10). Interestingly, linolenic acid contents of both roasted and unroasted oils changed between 9.43 (Type 10) and 16.29% (Type 8) to 9.64 (Type 10) and 16.58% (Type 8), respectively and were significant (p < 0.05) different. γ-tocopherol content of unroasted walnut oils varied between 6.3 (Type 3) and 11.4 mg/100g (Type 1) and γ-tocopherol contents of roasted walnut oils ranged between 28.1 (Type 8) and 38.2 mg/100g (Type 3). The oil could be useful for industrial applications owing to good physicochemical properties. Fatty acid values for oil obtained from roasted walnut were slightly higher than those reported for unroasted walnut oils.
We studied the effects of mineral oil (MO) on the properties and structure of a spread monolayer of polar lipid constituents in meibum, by performing cyclic lateral compression-expansion experiments using a Langmuir trough. A meibum sample without nonpolar lipids (meibumΔnonpolar-lipid) was prepared by removing the nonpolar lipids from biological meibum extruded from rabbit eyelids and spread on a water surface for measuring the cyclic surface pressure (π)–film area (A) isotherms with in situ observation of the film morphology using a Brewster angle microscope. The meibumΔnonpolar-lipid formed a homogeneous fluid monolayer and underwent collapse upon compression. The π–A isotherm shifted to a smaller area upon repeating the compression–expansion cycles. These observations contrasted those obtained for meibum previously, which may have resulted from the absence of nonpolar lipids. The recovery of the film stability against the lateral compression–expansion cycles was analyzed by adding MO as a nonpolar compound to the film system. A spread film of 1:1 mixture (by weight) could recover the high reversibility of the π–A isotherms during the repeated compression and expansion processes.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasonic operating conditions, i.e., ultrasonic mode, amplitude, total ultrasonic duration time, and emulsifier system in producing an optimum oil-in-water of sacha inchi oil nanoemulsions (SIO-NEs). Physicochemical characteristics (including average droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and viscosity) were the evaluated response variables. Smaller droplet size was obtained from SIO-NEs prepared by ultrasonic pulse application (15s ON and 10s OFF) with an ultrasonic amplitude level of 60%. In contrast, excess energy produced by ultrasonication amplitudes of more than 60% resulted in larger average droplet size and PDI. A decrease in the absolute value of zeta potential and a lower viscosity of SIO-NEs were also observed in conjunction with the high amplitude level of the ultrasonication process. An ultrasonication duration time of longer than 10 minutes did not significantly reduce the droplet size. Five emulsifier systems were evaluated in this study, including Pluronic®L-31, Brij®C-10, Tween®80, Tween®80/Pluronic®L-31, and Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31. The results revealed that the Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31 mixture produced the smallest droplet size (148 nm) with the lowest PDI (0.210), viscosity (3.35 cPs), and zeta potential (－31.09 mV). The concentration of the Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31 mixture, used as an emulsifier of SIO-NEs, varied from 1.5% to 9%. Based on the present findings, the most suitable concentration of mixed emulsifier used was deemed as 3% (w/v). The selected SIO-NEs were stored under room temperature to determine their droplet size stability, with the constant slightly increasing within 90 days of storage.
A poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)–poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) alternating multiblock (AMB) copolymer with various molecular weights was prepared via precipitation fractionation from an acetone/n‐hexane mixture. The cloud point (Tc) of the aqueous solution of PEO–PPO AMB copolymer decreased as the number‐average molecular weight of the sample increased. This phenomenon is generally observed for certain homopolymer systems having a lower critical solution temperature, such as PEO/water and poly(N,N‐diethylacrylamide)/water systems. The relationship between the Tc of the solutions and the number of monomer units of the AMB copolymer suggests that the Shultz–Flory theory is applicable to this system.
Emulsions are colloid dispersions which are attractive for use as drug carriers due to their simple structure and facile preparation. However, their low physicochemical stability has been problematic. In order to solve this problem, a spontaneous emulsification technique composed of porous silica particles has been developed. In this study, we investigated the conditions for effective formation of protein-encapsulated solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsions using this technique. Porous silica particles having a hydrophilic surface promoted the formation of a fine and uniform emulsion. It was found that the progression of emulsification was affected by electrolytes in aqueous solution. Moreover, it was confirmed that the S/O/W emulsion prepared using this method could successfully encapsulate protein.
This study includes an evaluation of friction on the fingers, palms, and forearms of 20 subjects using a sinusoidal motion friction evaluation system. The effects of the changing water content in the stratum corneum at each position as well as the skin elastic modulus on the friction parameters were analyzed to show the factors governing friction dynamics. We observed a significant delay time (δ) and a stick–slip phenomenon during the sinusoidal motion friction processes. These dynamic phenomena are due to the softness and viscoelastic properties of human skin. The findings regarding the response of human skin to frictional stimulation under accelerated conditions facilitates a better understanding of the dynamic and mechanical properties of human skin.
Esterases catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in fatty acid esters with short-chain acyl groups. In the present study, thirty-seven bacterial isolates were isolated from soil contaminated with waste cooking oil, dairy waste etc. from Shimla and Solan district of H.P. Out of 37 isolates, the isolate RL-1, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis MH061919. The optimization of various production parameters resulted in maximum activity at inoculum age of 24 h and inoculum size of 1.5% (v/v). Esterase gave considerable activity in production medium containing sodium chloride (0.5 % w/v), galactose (1%, w/v), coconut oil (2.0%, v/v) and beef extract (0.3%, w/v) at a temperature of 45℃ and pH 8.5.The enzyme production was enhanced by 3-fold after optimization of production parameters. Further, on optimizing reaction conditions, enzyme gave maximum activity at a temperature of 45℃ and pH 8.5. The para-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) was found to be optimum substrate and metal ions and detergents have inhibitory effect on esterase activity.
EGCG is a major pharmacological compound in green tea. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. Inflammation and insulin resistance are involved in the development of the disease. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of EGCG on the liver tissue of NAFLD rats induced by a high-fat diet and its underlying mechanism. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats received a normal diet, a HFD and a HFD+EGCG. The expression levels of inflammatory signaling pathway genes (e.g., TLR4, TRAF6, IKKβ, NF-κB, TNF-α) and insulin signaling transduction pathway genes (e.g., PI3K, AKT, IRS-1, IRS-2) were detected in the liver. We observed that EGCG decreased the triglyceride (TG) concentration in rat livers and suppressed TLR4, TRAF6, IKKβ, p-IKKβ, p-NF-κB, and TNF-α levels compared with those in the HFD group, whereas PI3K, AKT, IRS-1, and IRS-2 indicators were improved. EGCG improves obesity-associated subacute hepatic inflammation states, probably through the TLR4 signaling pathway. Furthermore, EGCG also alleviated hepatic insulin resistance. These data indicate that EGCG improves NAFLD from two ways: inhibition of inflammation and improvement of insulin resistance in liver tissues.
Obesity, a lifestyle disease resulting from excessive caloric intake and insufficient physical activity, results in a state of chronic inflammation. A food ingredient that suppresses chronic inflammation could help prevent associated diseases. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a herb from the Lamiaceae family with some reported anti-inflammatory effects. Via this in vitro study, we aimed to investigate whether sweet basil exerts anti-inflammatory effects in obese patients. Fresh sweet basil leaves were freeze-dried and powered. After that, this was extracted with 80% methanol. After 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with sweet basil extracts at final concentrations of either 5 or 25 μg/mL for 24h, RAW264.7 macrophages were seeded onto this adipocytes and co-cultured for 12h. We determined the effects of sweet basil extracts on inflammatory cytokine expression by real-time PCR or western blotting. Sweet basil extracts reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by co-culture, including that of IL-6 (Il6), IL-1β (Il1b), TNF-α (Tnf), and CCL2 (Ccl2). In addition, sweet basil extracts suppressed the mRNA expression of NF-κB (Nfκb1), a transcription factor of inflammatory cytokines. In an investigation of costimulatory CD137 (Tnfrsf9)/CD137L inflammatory signaling, a member of the TNF super-family, sweet basil extracts inhibited Tnfrsf9 expression induced by the co-culture. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that sweet basil extracts have an anti-inflammatory effect against adipocyte-induced inflammation, possibly through suppression of Tnfrsf9 expression.
We previously reported that soy β-conglycinin (βCG) improves obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities, but not obesity, in obese model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of βCG-derived peptide consumption on obesity and lipid abnormality in OLETF rats. To this end, wild-type Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka and OLETF rats were provided a normal diet containing 20% casein for four weeks as a control. In addition, we prepared βCG peptide by enzymatic hydrolysis, and OLETF rats were fed a diet in which half of the casein was replaced by βCG peptide (βCG peptide group). Consequently, rats in the βCG peptide group showed decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weight and lipid content (serum and liver triglycerides, and serum and liver cholesterol) compared to control OLETF rats. Further analysis demonstrated that βCG peptide consumption decreased lipogenic enzyme activity and increased lipolytic enzyme activity in the liver of OLETF rats. In addition, suppressive effects on both synthesis and absorption of cholesterol were observed in βCG peptide-fed OLETF rats. These findings suggest that peptidization of βCG enhanced the anti-obese and hypolipidemic effects of βCG.
In the present work, the palladium (Pd) modification and supporting effect of W/TiO2 catalysts on catalytic ethanol dehydration to ethylene and diethyl ether were investigated. The Pd modification with different sequence of Pd and W impregnation on the catalysts was prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation technique. The catalyst characterization and activity testing revealed that the different sequence during impregnation influenced the physicochemical properties and ethanol conversion of catalyst. The differences in structure and surface properties were investigated by XRD, BET, SEM, EDX, XPS and NH3-TPD. Upon the reaction temperature between 200 to 400°C, it was found that the conversion increased with increasing of temperature for all catalysts. The Pd incorporated into catalysts enhanced the ethanol conversion depending on the sequence of impregnation. At low temperature (ca. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether is a major product and the Pd modification over W/TiO2 catalyst resulted in increased diethyl ether yield. This is because an increase of ethanol conversion was obtained with Pd modification, while diethyl ether selectivity did not change. This can be attributed to the higher amount of weak acids sites present after Pd modification into catalyst. Among all catalysts, the PdW/TiO2 catalyst (coimpregnation) achieved the highest diethyl ether yield of 41.4% at 300℃. At high temperature (ca. 350 to 400°C), ethylene is the major product. The W/Pd/TiO2 catalyst (with sequential impregnation of Pd on TiO2 followed by W) exhibited the highest ethylene yield of 68.1% at 400°C. It can be concluded that the modification of Pd onto W/TiO2 upon different sequence of Pd and W impregnation can improve the diethyl ether and ethylene yield in catalytic ethanol dehydration.