The loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is commonly found in Japan. Its fruits are consumed raw or used in processed foods, and its leaves are used as a traditional medicine and in the manufacturing of cosmetics. Additionally, its seeds have several industrial applications. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the fatty acid composition of loquat seed oil, and to evaluate its potential application as a deodorant. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid, behenic acid, and lignoceric acid were found to be the primary fatty acids present in the seeds, among which linoleic acid was involved in the deodorization of allyl methyl sulfide. Based on these results, loquat seed oil has potential for use in deodorant production.
This manuscript described the preparation of triglycerides with palmitic and ethyl oleate chains, and the stability of emulsions prepared from those triglycerides. Results showed that ratios of total saturated fatty acids (ΣSFA) of palm stearin oil (PSO), physical fractionation oil of palm stearin oil (PPP) and structured lipids of rich 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) were 72.5%, 95.4% and 33.2% respectively. Rich 1,3-dioleoyl-2 palmitoylglycerol-emulsion (OPO-E) showed a better emulsion stability than that of palm stearin oil (PSO) and physical fractionation oil of palm stearin oil (PPP). The emulsion stability of OPO-E with 10% structured lipids of rich 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) showed the highest value compared with 5% and 20% OPO. The value of emulsion stability (ES) was 85.5, the values of volume-surface mean diameter(d32) and weight mean diameter(d43) were 0.09-0.79 μm and 1.1-34.1 μm, respectively. The experimental data had significant (p < 0.05) difference with other emulsions. The value of zeta potential ranged from –34.8 to –53.1 mV, indicating that the emulsion stability of 10% OPO was the most stable in all experiment samples.
The role of Ni-Ag bimetallic magnetic catalysts in the catalytic transfer of hydrogenated soybean oil was studied. First, a Ni-Ag0.15/PVP-DB-171/SiO2/Fe3O4 magnetic catalyst with a magnetic saturation value of 10.431 emu / g was prepared. It was found that the addition of the metal Ag promoter enhanced the dispersion of Ni on the PVP-DB-171/SiO2/Fe3O4 support. The conditions of the catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) (temperature 80°C, catalyst loading 0.23%, donor concentration 0.32 mol /50 mL H2O, and time 90 min) showed the effects of the bimetallic catalysts on the soybean oil hydrogenation process. The hydrogenated soybean oil linolenic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid reaction rate constants were 4.95×10–2, 8.6×10–3 and 7.54×10–4, respectively. The selectivity of linolenic acid and linoleic acid is as high as 5.75 and 11.4, respectively; the iodine value (IV) of soybean oil after hydrogenation is 102 g I2/100g and the trans fatty acids(TFAs) content is only 1.7%. The use efficiency of the catalyst decreased to 60% after 8 cycles. Catalytic transfer hydrogenation has important research significance and application prospects for the preparation of low-trans hydrogenated oils and fats. This method also provides a theoretical basis for the development of the oil hydrogenation industry.
The seed of five fruits and vegetables, which are often eaten by Chinese people, were selected as research objects to study the physicochemical properties, nutritional ingredients and antioxidant capacity of their seed oils. The fatty acid results indicated that the oleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid in almond oil and celery seed oil (content of 64.10% and 62.96%, respectively), and the wax gourd seed oil, watermelon seed oil and pumpkin seed oil were linoleic acid as the main unsaturated fatty acid (content of 72.45%, 76.77% and 47.35%, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas saturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-1, 3 positions for the five seed oils. The pumpkin seed oil had certain advantages in terms of phytosterols and squalene (3716 and 2732 mg/kg, respectively). The high content of polyphenol for celery seed oil exhibits higher medicinal value. Polyphenols, and brassicasterols were have significant correlation with antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05, r = 0.890-0.998). The significant differences in nutrient composition between these fruits and vegetables seed oils indicate their unique value as food.
In the present work, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with mass spectrometry (HILIC-HPLC /ESI-MS) was used for the characterization and the quantification of glycerophospholipids (GPLs) classes and their molecular species in three genetically different Tunisian apricot cultivars (bitter, sweet and semi-sweet apricots). The application of the proposed method to the analysis of apricot oil allowed to separate and identify 74 molecular species of GPLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) class was found to be the most abundant GLPs in the three seed oils (38.6-62.4%) especially in bitter apricot, followed by phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) classes with values of 8.3-38.9% and 1.7-25.4% respectively. Phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) compounds were minor ones with maximums of 11.3%, 9.8% and 9.2% respectively. The results we obtained for the three Tunisian apricot seed varieties clearly indicate that the phospholipids of Tunisian apricot are of great interest. In fact, the high content of phosphatidylcholine (PC) determines it as a suitable and valuable source for obtaining corresponding phospholipids concentrates.
Camellia oleifera, C. japonica and C. sinensis are three representative crops of the genus Camellia. In this work, we systematically investigated the lipid characteristics of these seed oils collected from different regions. The results indicated significant differences in acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), saponification value (SV) and relative density of the above-mentioned camellia seed oils (p < 0.05). The C. japonica seed oils showed the highest AV (1.7 mg/g), and the C. sinensis seed oils showed the highest PV (17.4 meq/kg). The C. japonica seed oils showed the lowest IV (79.9 g/100 g), SV (192.7 mg/g) and refractive index (1.4633) of all the oils, while the C. sinensis seed oils showed the lowest relative density (0.911 g/cm3). The major fatty acids in the camellia seed oils were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2); the oleic acid in C. oleifera and C. japonica seed oils accounted for more than 80% of the total fatty acids. The oleic acid levels in the C. oleifera and C. japonica oils were higher than those in the C. sinensis seed oils, while the linoleic acid levels in the former were lower than those in the latter one. Differences also exist in the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, although the most abundant TAG molecular species in the camellia seed oils was trioleoylglycerol (OOO). Seven sterol species, squalene and α-tocopherol were detected in the camellia seed oils, however, the contents of tocopherol and unsaponifiable molecules in the C. oleifera and C. japonica seed oils were significantly lower than those in the C. sinensis seed oil. These results demonstrated that the varieties of Camellia affected the seed oil lipid characteristics.
This report focuses on acceleration of the recombination of lophyl radicals with a lophine dimer derivative by forming molecular assemblies. A newly synthesized cationic amphiphilic lophine dimer formed molecular assemblies with a diameter of ~220 nm in an aqueous medium. When the molecular assemblies were formed, the rate of recombination of lophyl radicals, produced by ultraviolet light irradiation, was accelerated 50,000-fold compared to that in an organic solvent. The rate enhancement is likely derived from the short diffusion distance of the lophyl radicals in the molecular assemblies. These results revealed that accumulation of the lophine dimers via self-assembly remarkably accelerated the recombination of lophyl radicals. This novel photoisomerization system could rapidly control the interfacial properties or morphologies of molecular assemblies when used for applications, such as efficient delivery of drugs or active components.
Hydrophobicity of ingredients is important for designing food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Here, we evaluated the hydrophobicity of fatty acids and showed the effect of the alkyl length and the unsaturation degree using reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC). A linear relation was obtained between the methanol concentration in a mobile phase and the Rm value. The linear regression analysis was achieved and the hydrophobicity value Rmw was obtained using the robust regression (MM-estimator). The hydrophobicity of fatty acids depends on the structure of alkyl chain as follows: a longer alkyl chain in fatty acid increased the hydrophobicity. Additionally, the hydrophobicity increased as the number of unsaturated parts increased. Fatty acid with branched structures were less hydrophobic than that with straight chained structures.
Conifer resins are used as chemical raw materials for daily necessities. There have been many reports on the aroma components of turpentine oil from rosin, but there has been no reports on fluctuations in the aroma components through spring to late autumn. We speculated that the aroma components in the essential oils of deciduous coniferous larches might fluctuate during maturation of the foliage. In this study, we focused on the aroma components of larch essential oils and we clarified by multivariate analysis how the aroma components fluctuate during leaf maturation. The results of analysis showed that there was a drastic seasonal fluctuation of the chemical components in larch essential oils, especially in senescent leaves in late autumn. Cryptone and linalool were identified as the characteristic aroma components in essential oil from senescent larch leaves.
Hydrotalcite or Mg-Al LDHs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The Mg-Al mixed oxide was then derived by calcination of hydrotalcite at 450°C. The metal modified catalysts (Mo/Mg-Al and V/Mg-Al) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The obtained catalysts were characterized by several useful techniques and tested the reactivity for dehydrogenation and oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol (gas-phase) to produce acetaldehyde. The catalytic reactions were performed at temperature range from 200 to 400°C for both non-oxidative and oxidative atmospheres. The results showed that the vanadium-modified hydrotalcite (V/Mg-Al) exhibited the highest ethanol conversion (34.3%) and acetaldehyde yield (15.5%) at 400℃ in the non-oxidative atmosphere. For the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol, the V/Mg-Al catalyst showed the highest activity at 400°C giving the ethanol conversion and acetaldehyde yield of 73.7% and 29.5%, respectively. This result probably related to the highest base density of V/Mg-Al catalyst (6.13 µmol CO2/m2) measured by CO2-TPD. The catalytic activity of Mg-Al catalyst and metal modified catalyst slightly decreased upon time-on-stream test for 10 h on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol due to carbon deposition.
In this study, tea polyphenols (TP) was added to a soy protein isolate (SPI) to prepare nanoemulsions by ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH). The nanoemulsions were characterized by a confocal laser scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, dynamic rheometer and size-potential analyzer. The effects of TP on the hydrophobicity, emulsifiability, particle size, potential and antioxidant capacity of the prepared nanoemulsions were investigated. The properties of the nanoemulsions with different concentrations of TP were analyzed. The results indicated that ultra-high pressure homogenization treatment contributed to the formation of the SPI-TP complex that showed higher antioxidant activity. The nanoemulsions with good emulsifying properties and high DPPH scavenging ability at the concentration of TP ranged from 0.15-0.20g / mL. Furthermore, nanoemulsions prepared in this way also had a uniform particle size. Therefore, this nanoemulsions exhibited a good potential to act as an efficient emulsifier.