The human metabolic syndrome and its frequent sequela, type 2 diabetes are epidemic around the world. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) consumption ameliorates some of these epidemics’ features thus leading one to question if consumption of EPA and DHA, and their metabolic precursor ALA reduce the conversion of metabolic syndrome to type 2 diabetes and reduce the major cause of death in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes-myocardial infarction. Contributing to myocardial infarction are metabolic syndrome’s features of dyslipidemia (including elevated total cholesterol and LDL-c), oxidation, inflammation, hypertension, glucose intolerance, overweight and obesity. Inflammation, glucose and lipid levels are variously influenced by disturbances in various adipocytokines which are in turn positively impacted by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. Type 2 diabetes has all these features though elevated total cholesterol and LDL-c are rarer. It is concluded that EPA and DHA consumption significantly benefits metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes primarily in terms of dyslipidemia (particularly hypertriglyceridemia) and platelet aggregation with their impact on blood pressure, glucose control, inflammation and oxidation being less established. There is some evidence that EPA and/or DHA consumption, but no published evidence that ALA reduces conversion of metabolic syndrome to type 2 diabetes and reduces death rates due to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. ALA’s only published significance appears to be platelet aggregation reduction in type 2 diabetes.
Nowadays laundry detergents are becoming increasingly popular as they can be metered automatically into the washing machine, impart softness, antistaticness, resiliency to fabrics, mild to eyes and skins and shows good dispersibility in water. Because it is consumed when it is used, the sale of laundry detergent is a rather large business. There are many different kinds or brands of laundry detergent sold, many of them claiming some special qualities as selling points. A Laundry detergent composition is a formulated mixture of raw materials that can be classified into different types based on their properties and function in the final product. The different classes of raw materials are surfactants, builders, bleaching agents, enzymes, and minors which remove dirt, stain, and soil from surfaces or textiles gave them pleasant feel and odour. The physico-chemical properties of surfactants make them suitable for laundry purposes. Laundry detergent has traditionally been a powdered or granular solid, but the use of liquid laundry detergents has gradually increased over the years, and these days use of liquid detergent equals or even exceeds use of solid detergent. This review paper describes the history, composition, types, mechanism, consumption, environmental effects and consumption of laundry detergents.
The present study attempted to clarify the antihypertensive effect and its mechanism when α-linolenic acid (ALA) is administered orally. For this purpose, 1 mL of flaxseed oil, which is rich in ALA, and high oleic safflower oil was administered orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a control and an ALA group on days 1 and 5. Systolic blood pressure was measured on day 1, and blood and liver were collected on day 5. Four hours after the oral administration on day 1, systolic blood pressure of the ALA group was lower than that of the control group. Levels of plasma vasodilators, such as prostaglandin I2 metabolite, nitric oxide metabolites, and bradykinin, in the ALA group were significantly higher than those in the control group, but levels of vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II and thromboxane A2 metabolite, did not differ significantly. It is known that bradykinin induces prostaglandin I2 and nitric oxide. The present study shows that ALA reduced the systolic blood pressure of SHR, and its mechanism may be related to increases of prostaglandin I2 and nitric oxide through bradykinin stimulation.
We investigated the antihypertensive effect and safety of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in human subjects. In Experiment 1, subjects with high-normal blood pressure and mild hypertension ingested bread containing 14 g of common blended oil (control oil) or ALA-enriched oil for 12 weeks. The test oil contained 2.6g/14 g of ALA. The subjects ingested strictly controlled meals during the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the ALA group than in the control group after ingestion of the test diet for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the ALA group than in the control group after ingestion of the test diet for 12 weeks. In Experiment 2, we evaluated the safety of high intake of ALA (7.8g/d), particularly its effects on oxidation in the body and blood coagulation. Normotensive, high-normotensive and mildly hypertensive subjects ate bread that contained 42 g of the control oil or the test oil for 4 weeks. No significant difference was noted in the lipid peroxide level, high-sensitive C-reactive protein level, plasma prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time between the two groups. No abnormal changes were noted after test diet ingestion on blood test or urinalysis, and no adverse event considered to have been induced by the test oil was observed in Experiment 1 and 2. These results suggest that ALA have an antihypertensive effect with no adverse effect in subjects with high-normal blood pressure and mild hypertension.
It is well known that the consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreases the plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level. The technology of elevating the content of n-3 PUFAs in pig meat has already reached a practical level. In this study, the effects of dietary lard containing higher α-linolenic acid (LNA) on plasma TAG were compared with those of normal lard in rats. The rats were fed a diet containing either 10% normal lard or a high linolenic lard for 4 weeks. The plasma and liver TAG levels in the high linolenic lard group were significantly lower than those in the normal lard group. The activity of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) of the liver in the high linolenic lard group was significantly lower than that in the normal lard group. The contents of n-3 PUFAs in hepatic total lipid, TAG fraction, and the phospholipids (PLs) fraction increased in the high linolenic lard group. The results indicate that the high linolenic lard suppressed hepatic FAS activity compared with the control lard, resulting in a lower concentration of plasma TAG. These results also suggest that pig meat containing high LNA may be more nourishing than normal pig meat.
It has been reported that diabetes and Sjögren’s syndrome patients exhibit variations in the amount of salivation and in the lipid components in saliva and salivary glands. We examined whether lipid compositions, especially phospholipid ones in the salivary glands of rats varied with aging. We analyzed phospholipid and fatty acid compositions in the salivary glands of young (5 to 6 weeks), adult (20 weeks), and old (50 weeks) rats and biochemical components in their blood. The aging (adult and old) rats had higher triacylglycerol, total lipid, total cholesterol and glucose contents in the plasma than the young one. The aging ones also had higher total lipid contents in the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands). They had higher wet weights of the major salivary glands and epididymal fat pads than the young ones, but had lower ratios of the major salivary glands to body weight. All of them had high phospholipid contents in the parotid and submandibular glands as compared to sublingual gland, but the aging ones had lower percentage of phospholipid contents of all salivary glands. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were predominant among the phospholipids in the major salivary glands, and little difference was observed in phospholipid composition among the three groups. Palmitic and stearic acids (saturated acids), and linoleic, oleic and arachidonic acids (unsaturated acids) were major components of fatty acids of phospholipids in the major salivary glands. The aging ones had higher linoleic and lower arachidonic acid contents in the glands than the young one. In summary, the aging rats had higher total lipid contents than the young ones and had lower phospholipid contents of the major salivary glands. The n-6 fatty acid contents differed between aging and young ones. The results suggest that phospholipids in the major salivary glands change with the development of rat.
Fluoroalkanoyl peroxides reacted with dimethacrylate monomer containing poly(oxyethylene) units and acrylic acid to afford cross-linked fluoroalkyl end-capped cooligomeric nanoparticles in excellent to moderate isolated yields under very mild conditions. These cross-linked fluorinated nanoparticles thus obtained were nanometer size-controlled, and these nanoparticles were found to exhibit a good dispersibility and stability in a variety of common organic solvents including water. Interestingly, these cross-linked fluorinated cooligomeric nanoparticles were applied to the preparation of colloidal stable cross-linked fluorinated cooligomeric magnetite nanoparticles.