Edible (muscle with skin) and non-edible (viscera, head and bone) parts of fish were homogenized with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) according to the method of Bligh & Dyer to extract lipids. These fish products were also homogenized with distilled water (DW), NaCl solution and electrolyzed cathode water (EW(-)). The aqueous homogenate was centrifuged and filtered, and then the lipids in the aqueous filtrate were recovered by hexane extraction. The content of lipid obtained by the Bligh & Dyer method from edible and non-edible parts of saury was higher than those by extractions with DW and NaCl solution. On the other hand, EW(-) extraction showed higher lipid content than the Bligh & Dyer method in this case. Nevertheless, the lipid extraction ability of EW(-) was decreased when exposed to air for 7 days, showing that high pH and/or high dissolved hydrogen may be responsible for the effect of EW(-). The present study also showed the ability of EW(-) in effective lipid extraction from other kinds of fish products such as edible and non-edible parts of mackerel, sardines, tuna orbital and trout eggs.
Octyl dihydroxystearate was synthesized enzymatically to overcome the problems associated with chemical processes such as high energy costs and degradation of ester. Immobilized enzyme, Lipozyme IM was employed as catalyst in the esterification reaction between dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and 1-octanol. The product obtained was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) as well as wet chemistry. The crude product has a melting point of 59.0°C, saponification value of 140.5 mgKOH/g, hydroxyl value of 223.9 mgKOH/g and acid value of 7.9 mgKOH/g. The yield was about 95% with respect to the amount of DHSA used. The product obtained was found to contain octyl dihydroxystearate, octyl palmitate and octyl stearate. This compound was found to be nonirritating.
Laccase, a kind of polyphenoloxidase, was found to oxidize unsaturated triacylglycerol under mild reaction conditions in the presence of mediators that generate relatively stable radicals or cation species. 2,2′-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, syringaldehyde, 2,4-pentanedione and phenothiazine were used as mediators. The oxidized products were characterized by UV- and IR- spectroscopic analyses, ferric thiocyanate peroxide analysis and size exclusion chromatography. It was considered that conjugated diene peroxide units were formed in triacylglycerol without substantial polymerization or degradation reactions of the main chain in the fatty acid residual group. Under the same reaction conditions as for triacylglycerol, linolenic acid and linoleic acid, which constitute triacylglycerol, were also oxidized by the laccase/mediator system, but lower and higher molecular weight portions were formed. The former portion is considered as a degradation product of the corresponding peroxidized unsaturated fatty acid by fractionation followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.
Cationic copolymers for fixing perfluoroalkyl phosphate (Rf phosphoric ester) on pulp fiber are used to prepare water and oil resistant paper using internal sizing. Quaternary ammonium salts of vinyl monomers were synthesized by the Menschutkin reaction, 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DE) and 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DM) as vinyl monomers reacted with quaternizing compounds (dimethyl sulfate, diethyl sulfate) to provide the corresponding quaternary ammonium salts of vinyl monomer. Quaternary ammonium salts and acrylamide (AAm) were copolymerized. The copolymer of diethyl(2-methacryloxyethyl)methyl ammonium methylsulphate(DE-DMS) [I] and acrylamide(AAm) at a molar ratio of 1.0/ 1.5 has been found to improve the oil and water resistance of paper using Rf phosphoric ester. Water and oil resistant paper using internal sizing may thus be obtained through use of cationic copolymer.
Penetrating agents have been examined to find means to improve oil and water resistance and water repellency of commercial size using the perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer. The 10EO-4PO adduct with C8-10 alcohol as penetrating agent in the size pressing procedure has been shown to maximize these three parameters of this copolymer and improve them in the case of commercial size paper. With application of a mixture containing 0.75-1.00 wt% EO-PO adduct and 1.50-3.00 wt% perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer to commercial size paper at a fixation ratio exceeding 43 wt%, pulp fiber surface of the paper was noted to be completely covered with perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer. Application of a EO-PO adduct and perfluoroalkyl acrylate copolymer mixture to commercial size paper is thus very effective for improvement of these parameters.
The monoterpene aldehydes, (-)-perillaaldehyde , (-)-myrtenal , were converted to nitriles by sequential N,N-dimethylhydrazonation, methylation and a Hofmann-type elimination reaction. The nitriles were subsequently converted to terpenoyl chlorides by hydroysis and chlorination with thionyl chloride. The chlorocarbonylated terpenes were condensed with pyrrolidine, 2-, 3-, or 4-methylpiperidines, and 2,6- or 3,5-dimethylpiperidines to produce 14 terpeneamides [1a]-[2g] in 42-87% overall yields in four steps starting with imidation of the terpene aldehydes. 1-Adamantanecarboxylic acid  and 1-adamantaneacetic acid  were condensed with pyrrolidine, 2-, 3-, or 4-methylpiperidines, and 2,6- or 3,5-dimethylpiperidines to afford 14 adamantane amides [3a]-[4g] in 41-90% overall yields in one step starting from adamantane derivatives. Miticidal activity of amide compounds [1a]-[4g] toward Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Dermatophagoides farinae was assessed. On filter paper, amide compounds [2a]-[2g] from  showed miticidal activity exceeding that of N,N-Dimethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) toward T. putrescentiae. On filter paper amide compounds [1c]-[1e] from  and [2a]-[2g] from  and showed [3b], [3d], [3e] from  and [4a], [4b], [4d], [4f], [4g] from  indicated greater miticidal activity compared to DEET for D. farinae.
Bisphenol A (BPA) widely used includes drain water, consequently causing a serious health threat owing to its endocrine disruptor action. The pH dependence on BPA photodegradation in TiO2 dispersion under UV-irradiation was examined at different pH in BPA solution (0.1 mM) containing TiO2 (100 mg). BPA photodegradation was assessed by UV spectroscopy, and total organic carbon (TOC). Change in ζ-potential and •OH radicals formation were determined by ESR spin-trapping technique for each solution. Decrease in ratio of UV absorption and TOC at pH 11 occurred more slowly than that at pH 4, 6.3 or 10. This was due to conversion of two -OH groups in BPA to -O2- the pH 11. Anionic BPA and negative TiO2 surface thus separate by simple coulombic force. •OH radical intensity at pH 11 was greater than at other values. The photooxidation rate was influenced by the initial absorption between partially charged BPA and TiO2 surface regardless of the number of •OH radicals.