In the present paper, simple, rapid and reliable colour tests such as Sodium azide test, Modified nitric acid test, Azo dye test, Boudouin test, Hexabromide test, Halphen’s test, Molybdate method and Solvent partition test have been reported for the detection of adulterants in edible oils. These are performed for synthetic mustard oil, argemone oil, physically refined rice bran oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil, castor oil and palmolein respectively (respective sensitivity level as 0.1%, 0.1%, 2.5%, 0.2%, 1.0%, 0.5% and 2.0%).
Solution properties of arginine oleate (ArgOA) were investigated by means of small angle X-ray scattering device, tensiometer, transmittance measuring device, transmission electron microscope, NMR, etc. Whereas arginine stearate which is different in hydrophobic moiety or sodium oleate which is different in counterion from ArgOA formed lamellar liquid crystals in a limited region, ArgOA formed over a wide ranges of temperature and concentration. The surface tension versus concentration curve of ArgOA had two bending points (C1 and C2). When the state of its aqueous solution was observed, transmittance of the aqueous solution decreased in the concentration range of C1 and more and, in the region until C2 where the concentration further increased, particles of several tens nm and several hundreds nm were observed. At concentrations above C2, the viscosity of the aqueous solution began to increase due to the formation of bigger molecular aggregates. The formation of micelles, vesicle-like highly associated aggregates, and lamellar liquid crystals with large amount of water were observed as a result of an increase in concentration of ArgOA.
Effects of sucrose (SC) on the formation of emulsions were studied. An emulsion system containing 80 wt% triglyceride, 12 wt% aqueous phase and 8 wt% polyglycerin fatty acid ester (PGFA) was prepared. In the SC free system, the oil / water / PGFA mixed system was observed to be as a white viscous state, and the diameter of the particles was ca. 30 μm. On the other hand, the 40 wt% SC system demonstrated a translucent viscous state with fine droplets (ca.5 μm). In the 60 wt% SC system, a significant amount of oil was separated. The cloud point of PGFA extensively decreased with sucrose concentration. The emulsion containing the mixed ratio of PGFA to 40 wt% SC aqueous solution (2: 3 and 1: 4) gave O/W viscous emulsions. However, the emulsion containing PGFA and 40 wt% SC aqueous solution (3: 2 and 4: 1) allowed oil phase to separate from the system. When O/W viscous emulsion containing 40 wt% SC aqueous solution was diluted with water, the diameter of oil droplet was smaller than that prepared from an O/W viscous emulsion without SC. The droplet size distribution of the emulsion prepared without SC was broad, however that of the emulsion prepared with 40 wt% SC aqueous solution was narrow.
Physiologically active dolichyl phosphate (dol-P) is known to induce apoptosis in human promonoblastic leukemia cells U937 and rat glioma C6 cells. The study on the relation between chemical structure and apoptosis-inducing ability of dol-P indicated that phosphate head group is one of the essential structures. This study investigated the significance of phosphate group by using two structurally related compounds, dolichyl sulfate (dol-S) and dolichyl diphenylphosphate (dol-DPP). Dol-S prepared from dolichol and N, N-dimethyl formamide sulfur trioxide complex, maintains a charge but lacks a phosphate group. Dol-DPP, prepared from dolichol and diphenyl chlorophosphate, retains a phosphate group but has no charge. Human promonoblastic leukemia cells U937 were subjected to the two dol-P analogues, and apoptosis-inducing ability was determined by studies on cell viability, cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and activations of caspase-3 and 8. Dol-S induced apoptosis but dol-DPP did not. Moreover, dol-S was found to mediate apoptosis at only one-twentieth of the concentration of dol-P. These findings indicated that in dol-P-induced apoptosis, the charged group rather than the phosphate group was the required key structure for apoptosis induction.
Platelet hyper-aggregation is a serious manifestation of type 2 diabetes and a precipitating factor in the most frequent cause of death in type 2 diabetes-myocardial infarction. Consumption of flaxseed oil as a dietary supplement containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) through its metabolism to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and subsequent production of anti-aggregatory eicosanoids may reduce such aggregation in vivo. Lp (a) may also influence platelet aggregation in vivo. Furthermore, serum Lp(a) concentrations are increased and bleeding time is decreased in type 2 diabetics presenting an enhanced risk of myocardial infarction. It was hypothesised that Lp(a) and bleeding time would be correlated due to the considerable molecular homology between apolipoprotein (a) and plasminogen which should decrease bleeding time. Bleeding time is an excellent measure of in vivo platelet aggregability. One purpose of this study was to determine the impact flaxseed oil consumption on bleeding time compared to those on safflower oil and to determine the impact of Lp(a) on bleeding time. It was a secondary purpose to determine if there were any gender differences pre- or pre-post treatment in bleeding time. Subjects (N = 40) were randomly divided to take either the treatment, flaxseed oil (N = 20) or the placebo, safflower oil (N = 20). Each of the treatment or placebo groups contained equal numbers of males (N = 10) and females (N = 10). Some subjects dropped from the study due to reasons not related to treatment side effects. Subjects came for 3 visits, each 3 months apart. On each visit age, gender and BMI were recorded and bleeding time was performed. At the completion of visit 2, subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 gram of oil per 10 kg body weight each day for 3 months. Comparing pre- and post-treatment, there was a statistically significant increase in bleeding time in the flaxseed oil group including each of males and females while there was no change in the safflower group in total or by gender. Males had a statistically shorter bleeding time pre-treatment while males and females showed no difference post-treatment with flaxseed oil consumption. Males and females showed a non-significant correlation and statistically significant correlation respectively between pre-treatment values for Lp(a) and bleeding time. The statistically significant correlation also held for the whole population though at a lower value than females. It is concluded that flaxseed oil consumption has a statistically significant effect on slowing bleeding time thus likely reducing the risk of myocardial infarction and that such effect is more profound in males than females suggesting a greater efficacy of flaxseed oil administration for type 2 diabetic males. It is concluded that type 2 diabetic females take better advantage of elevated Lp(a) concentrations than do males thus, at least in part rendering the impact of flaxseed oil on bleeding time greater in males.
The Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peels were utilized for recovery of essential oil. The essential oil is one of the important ingredients widely used in various food products. The flavedo part of peels of mandarin fruit was utilized for extraction of essential oil by hydro-distillation method and cold pressing extraction method. The peels were pre-treated with enzyme by varying its concentration from 0.1% to 0.3%. Essential oil was recovered from these enzyme treated samples and yield obtained was compared with control samples. By varying the concentration of enzyme in pre-treatment the increase in the yield of essential oil as compared to control samples obtained were up to 15%. This increase in recovery may be due to rupture of oil sacs/glands by enzymatic action, resulting excess release of essential oil from oil sacs. The effect of concentration of enzyme at pH 4.5 and contact time 3 hrs on the yield obtained was studied during extraction.
Four nonionic hybrid surfactants with a benzene ring as a spacer, C6F13C6H4CH[O(C2H4O)mH]C5H11 (F6PH5EOm: m = 4, 8, 10, 14, C6H4 = p-phenylene), were synthesized. The surfactants synthesized were found to be as stable and hardly hydrolyzable as the previously reported ionic hybrid surfactants. F6PH5EO10 and F6PH5EO14 were highly surface-active and water-soluble while their critical micelle concentrations (cmc) determined by surface tension measurements were low compared with those of sulfate-type hybrid surfactants, C6F13C6H4CH(OSO3Na)C5H11 (F6PH5OS, C6H4 = p-phenylene), and phosphate-type hybrid surfactants, C6F13C6H4CH[OPO2(OC6H5)Na]C5H11 (F6PH5PPhNa, C6H4 = p-phenylene, C6H5 = phenyl), both of which also have a benzene ring as a spacer. The cloud point of F6PH5EO14 in solutions of salts such as NaCl and CaCl2 decreased with increasing salt concentration and the decreasing rate was the largest for NaCl, whereas the surfactant showed solubility high enough for use in physiological saline solution at temperatures around the body temperature.