Nigella sativa, lupin and artichoke seed oils have been investigated. The oils were subjected to detailed studies using gas chromatographic analysis (GLC) for fatty acids (FA, as methyl esters) and whole sterols (as silyl derivatives). Whereas, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG), four sterol lipids (free and acylated sterols, FS and AS, and free and acylated sterylglycosides, FSG and ASG, as their anthroylnitrile derivatives) as well as tocopherol patterns (T). The results showed that the three seed oils are rich in oleic and linoleic acids whereas, lupin had high linolenic acid content. It was found that the TAGs of the three oils showed some similarity with sunflower oil. Lupin oil had higher sterol content and it was very rich in campe- and β-sitosterol. Nigella sativa oil had a high content of isofucosterol, whereas artichoke oil was unique in having a high content of 5-stigma-, 7-stigma-, and avena- sterol. Concerning the FS and AS, Nigella sativa oil had the highest content, whereas artichoke oil had the highest content of FSG and ASG. Nigella sativa and lupin oils contained over 90 % γ-T while, artichoke oil comprised about 100 % α-T. It is recommended to use the three oils as healthy oils and folk medicine.
The n-6/n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in enteral feeding formulas is not considered to be important, because the short-term administration of these formulas has been the norm for postoperative digestive organs. However, the long-term administration of enteral feeding formulas has been increasingly recommended for patients with aging-associated aphagia. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the long-term administration of an enteral feeding formula containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the fatty acid composition of endogenous phospholipids. Rats, which were initially fed a diet lacking n-3 PUFAs for 2 generations, were subsequently fed an enteral feeding formula containing or lacking n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks (n = 10). Then, the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in the brain, liver, red blood cells, and plasma of the rats was analyzed. Although the fatty acid composition of neural tissues is suggested to be not affected by diet, the n-6/n-3 ratio of phospholipids in the brains of rats that were fed an enteral feeding formula containing n-3 PUFAs was significantly lower than those of rats that were fed a formula lacking n-3 PUFAs. The enteral feeding formula containing n-3 PUFAs may be effective for the regulation of brain functions and the prevention of atherosclerosis.
A series of polyoxyethylene surfactants containing carbonate linkages as biodegradable and chemically recyclable segments was designed and synthesized by a green process. A two-step carbonate exchange reaction was used: dimethyl or diphenyl carbonate was reacted with 1-alkanol, and the product was reacted with poly (ethylene) glycol in the presence of a lipase or chemical catalyst. The obtained carbonate-type nonionics exhibited good surface-active properties such as a low critical micelle concentration value and a surface tension lowering action. They were readily biodegraded by activated sludge, furthermore, could be chemical recycled using a lipase.
The in vitro metabolism of (+)-(1S,3S,4R) and (-)-(1R,3R,4S)-menthol enantiomers was examined by incubation with human liver microsomes, and the oxidative metabolites thus formed were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The (+)- and (-)-menthols were found to be oxidized to the respective (+)-(1S,3S,4S)- and (-)-(1R,3R,4R)-trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol derivatives by human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 was determined to be the major enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of (+)- and (-)-menthols by human liver microsomes on the basis of the following lines of evidence. First, of 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2A6 catalyzed the oxidation of (+)- and (-)-menthols. Second, oxidation of (+)- and (-)-menthols was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran and anti-CYP2A6 antibody. Finally, (+)- and (-)-menthol activities were found to correlate with contents of CYP2A6 in liver microsomes of 9 human samples.
In the present study, the phosphate adsorption abilities of granular materials, gibbsite (GB) and cerium hydroxide (CE), granulated with ethyl cellulose and ethanol, were investigated. For suitable granular conditions using GB or CE, the percentage of binder and amount of solvent were 10% and 3.25 mL/5 g for GB and 7.5% and 2.50 mL/5 g for CE. The amount of phosphate adsorbed by granular GB or CE was similar to that adsorbed by powdered GB or CE. The adsorption isotherms of phosphate were also similar for the granular and powdered materials. The results of a column experiment showed that when GB was used, the suitable concentration of sodium hydroxide as the desorption solution was 2 mmol/L. In these experiments, the amount of phosphate adsorbed was 31.4 mg/g, the amount of phosphate desorbed was 25.3 mg/g, and the recovery percentage was 80.5%. In contrast, when CE was used, the suitable concentration of sodium hydroxide was 500 mmol/L; the amount of phosphate adsorbed was 77.7 mg/g, the amount of phosphate desorbed was 57.8 mg/g, and the recovery percentage was 74.4%. Results also indicate that granular GB and CE could be used at least five times in a column without loss of absorption or desorption abilities. Moreover, granulation of GB and CE is possible using ethyl cellulose and ethanol.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops for human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) and commercially available ocular surface cells. A primary HCEC culture was derived from human eye bank specimens. SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells) were obtained commercially. The WST-1 assay was used to measure HCEC viability, and the viability of other cells was measured using the MTT assay. Cells were treated with 7 commercially available anti-allergic eye drops for 48 h and cell viability was measured and calculated as a percentage of control. The degree of toxicity for each eye-drop solution was based on the cell viability score (CVS). HCECs treated with a 1000-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution had a viability score of 67% for Rizaben and ≥80% for the other solutions with Zepelin being the least toxic. Cell viability in response to eye-drop solutions preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was dependent on the concentration of the drug solution and exposure time. Treatment of ocular surface cells with a 20-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution resulted in the following order of cell viability as determined by their CVS: Zepelin > Ketas = Zaditen ≥ Tramelas PF = Patanol ≥ Rizaben ≥ Livostin. This order was similar to that observed for HCECs, and cell viability was found to be concentration-dependent. Based on the penetration of the drug into eye tissues, HCECs are only likely to be pharmaceutically damaging in rare cases. Epithelial cell viability depends primarily on the concentration of BAK rather than on the action of the active component in the eye-drop solution. CVS values were useful for comparison of toxicity.
Poly(butyl methacrylate) and polystyrene were synthesized by emulsion polymerization using chemocleavable anionic surfactants (1a and 2a) derived from 1-O-alkylglycerols in order to resolve the problem that it is generally difficult to isolate the desired product from persistent emulsions. It has been previously determined that 1a decomposes completely under acidic conditions whereas 2a decomposes completely under both acidic and alkaline conditions. After emulsion polymerization, the emulsions could be easily broken by adding either HCl or NaOH. Further, the polymers could be filtered off very quickly. The polydispersities of these polymers were lower than those of the polymers synthesized by conventional emulsifiers. Further, the Na content values of the former were lower than those of the latter.