The evaluation of the impact of olive ripening degree on the stability of extra virgin olive oils not only by determining the oxidative stability index, the 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical test, but also by studying the variation of their sensory profiles, plays a key role in the assessment of the overall olive oil quality. To this end, Zalmati extra virgin olive oils samples were taken at three harvest dates relating to three ripening stages. The obtained results revealed that several analytical parameters, namely free fatty acids, peroxide index, K232 and K270, augment during repining. Besides, a substantial reduction was noticed for the monounsaturated fatty acid, chlorophyll, and carotenoids in oils produced at the advanced ripening stage. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to the data of the analytical analysis to delve into their capacity for discerning the oil quality consistently with the harvesting period of the Zalmati olives. Familiar plots have indicated that different olive oils are categorized in diverse harvest period groups, each of which could be obviously recognized.
The study aims to identify the fatty acid composition in Prinsepia utilis seeds collected from diverse populations of Western Himalaya, India. The seeds contained higher saturated fatty acid (SFA-43.09%; Average of all populations) followed by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA - 29.57%) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA - 25.53%), however variations among growing populations was measured. The correlation analysis reveals a significant (p < 0.05) negative connection between 10-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (FA1), and altitude. Edaphic factors like available nitrogen showed significantly (p < 0.05) but the negative correlation with cis-11-Eicosenoic acid, methyl ester (FA10; p < 0.001), Docosanoic acid, methyl ester (FA11; p < 0.05), Heptadecanoic acid, methyl ester (FA14; p < 0.05), and Tricosanoic acid, methyl ester (FA29; p < 0.05). Antioxidant activity did not show any variation in the seed oil of different populations but varied among the concentrations (5-50 µL) used. IC50 values of DPPH activity was significantly (p < 0.05) varied connect ranged from 11.31-24.21 µL/mL among the different populations. These variations in fatty acid composition and IC50 values of the DPPH activity can be one of the indicators for selecting a promising population that would be harnessed for its potential in nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals industries.
Since many of the current chemicals used to remove iron rust are hazardous to the environment and human health, the combined use of a reducing agent and a biodegradable chelating agent has been suggested as an environmental friendly and highly safe alternative. In the present work, the compatibility of the newly devised cleaning test with a model iron rust stain was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the cleaning efficiency of the method was evaluated by X-ray fluorescence. The cleaning mechanism and the synergistic effect of the reducing agent and the chelating agent was investigated using the phenanthroline absorption measurement method, and the results revealed that the reduced iron ions were dissolved by the chelating agent. The cleaning test proved that tetrasodium 3-hydroxy-2,2'-iminodisuccinate (HIDS) is a promising biodegradable chelating agent as an alternative to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for removing iron rust. It was also confirmed that the type of reducing agent used determines the pH at which detergency is enhanced. The detergency of the combination of the reducing agent and the biodegradable chelating agent was equal to or higher than the detergency of the acid agent, and thus, it was concluded that the proposed method has a great potential for commercial use.
Spherical particle formation degrades the performance of castor-oil-derived thixotropic additives, which are widely used to a dripping preventing agent in automobile paints and household waste oil treatment agent. Double-chain-type diamide is a heat-resistant thixotropic additive that causes nanofibrosis; its entanglement and gelation embracing solvent molecules-originating from the abundant intermolecular hydrogen bonds-and easy forming/rupturing tendency result in spherical particle formation, which can be confirmed by the temperature and time of reserve heating. Diamides with two hydrocarbons that have undergone thermal treatment leading to spheroidization were found exhibit significantly different sublimation/pyrolysis temperature, melting temperature, and crystal orientation than non-treated diamides. By comparing with the change observed under more extreme heating conditions, it can be considered that the amide bond site would increase the bond length and suppress the degree of freedom of rotation just before bond cleavage. In this state, verification of the origin of spherical particle formation by using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that anisotropic suppression of hydrogen bonding occurs. In addition, it was found that spheroidization can be suppressed by adding a growth aid when preheating is conducted under a certain condition.
Anionic liposomes (AL) are very attractive for nanomedicine and some formulations have already been launched for clinical development. Despite the excellent potential, their application presents two major challenges: laborious production methods and rapid degradation and elimination from blood by the immune system. In this work, we optimized the production of AL and its stealth form (SAL) using a onestep microfluidic process. We obtained unilamellar and near-monodisperse (< 10%) AL composed by the commercial composition (DMPC:DMPG) with mean size small as 53.7 nm, which is optimized for application in drug delivery. We also obtained SAL with similar characteristics using the microfluidic technique, overcoming the limitation of conventional methods where SAL presents high polydispersity (> 30%). This study demonstrates the great potential of the microfluidic technique for one-step production of stealth anionic nanoliposomes with controlled sizes and reproducible characteristics.
Biofilm forming bacteria can cause serious health problems that are difficult to combat. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesized from plant extracts have potential to fight and eradicate biofilmforming bacteria. In the present research, AgNPs were synthesized using leaf and bark extract of Erythrina suberosa Roxb. and Ceiba pentandra L. and their antibiofilm, antioxidant and antibacterial activity was checked. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts showed important bioactive compounds such as tannins, saponins, steroids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides. The AgNPs were synthesized and confirmed by visual color observation and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Visual color observation showed that the color of the leaf and bark extracts of E. suberosa and C. pentandra turned into brown. UV-Vis spectra analysis showed absorbance peak range between 430-450 nm. The antioxidant activity of the AgNPs was determined by FRAC (Ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Synthesized AgNPs from all sources showed significant antioxidant activity. However, antioxidant activity of E. suberosa AgNPs was significant compared to other sources. Antibacterial activity and biofilm forming assay was analyzed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The synthesized AgNPs silver nanoparticles showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) antibacterial activity against all the bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of E. suberosa AgNPs bark extract against P. aeruginosa was 20±1.154 mm. The results of biofilm forming assay showed that the AgNPs from all sources significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited the activity of biofilms by all the tested bacteria. From results, it can be concluded that AgNPs synthesized from both plants can be used in developing antimicrobial compounds.
Ceramide (Cer) and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) were isolated from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) fruits and characterized. 2,3-Dihydroxy fatty acids with C20 or longer acyl chains were found in Cer. GlcCers from the flesh of the fruit contained sphingosine (4-trans-sphingenine) as a major component. Notably, the Cer content was 1.5-fold higher than GlcCer content. The ratio of Cer plus GlcCer to the total lipid content in Satsuma mandarin was higher than that in the other citrus fruits analyzed in this study. Collectively, the pomace of the Satsuma mandarin fruit can be a good source of sphingolipids as functional components in foods.
Lactobacilli are commonly found in raw and fermented foods. These bacteria are of common interest because of their capability of bacteriocin production. Bacteriocins are compounds that may be used as natural preservatives in place of chemical additives. In the present study five different samples of poultry, meat and pickle were used to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by using the MRS culture medium. Antibacterial activity was checked against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Five strains from the poultry meat and six strains from pickle had shown antibacterial activity out of eight strains against pathogenic bacteria. Three strains of poultry meat i.e. M3, M7, M11, had shown antibacterial activity against all three indicator strains. While one strain M1 was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli but it was found not to be active against Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were not susceptible to M2. In the case of pickle strains H1, H2, NAT1, NAT2, were found to be active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli but Staphylococcus aureus was not susceptible to bacteriocins of these strains. NAT3 and SHZa strains showed antibacterial activity against all the three used pathogens. The highest activity (6 mm) had shown by the lNAT3 strain of pickle against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The least antimicrobial activity had shown by SHZa strain. M3 had an inhibition zone of 5 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. M11 had an inhibition zone of 5 mm against E. coli. Bacteriocins of all isolates were sensitive towards enzyme pepsin showing their proteinaceous nature. Detection of the bacteriocin gene by PCR the strains M2, M7 were amplified for Curvacin and plantaricin genes. From current study, it is concluded that different species of Lactobacilli can be used as antibacterial tool against common bacterial pathogens.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is growing autoimmune and inflammatory disease that occur due to self-destruction of immune response inducing joint deformity and bone erosion. During the arthritis inducing the swelling, pain and inflammation in around the joint and other body organs due to injury of tendons and ligaments. Specneuzhenide (SZ) already proved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect against the various diseases. In this experimental study, we scrutinized the anti-arthritic effect of SZ against the complete freund adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritic in rats. Subcutaneously injection of CFA was injected into the subplantar region of the left hind paw for induction the arthritis and rats were divided into different groups and rats received the oral administration of SZ (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) for 28 days. The body weight, paw swelling arthritic score mRNA expression and biochemical parameters were determined at regular time interval. CFA induced arthritic rats treated with SZ significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced the body weight and decreased the paw swelling, arthritic index and organ (spleen and thymus) index, respectively. SZ treated rats significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the hepatic parameter such as SGPT, SGOT and ALP, anti-CII IgG levels (IgG1 and IgG2A) and inflammatory parameters (COX-2 and PGE2). SZ treated rats significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the level of MDA and increased the level of GSH, SOD and CAT. SZ treated rats suppressed the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-16, IL-17 and increased the level of IL-10, TGF-β. SZ treated rats significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NF-κB. On the basis of result, we can say that specneuzhenide protective effect against CFA induced arthritis in rats via alteration of HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway.
Humoral practice is a fundamental natural biological phenomenon in earthworm defensive system which protects them from infectious bacteria and irritating agents by different mechanisms. The defensive system of earthworms is highly complicated because they lack antibodies in their blood circulatory system but their body extracts and coelomic fluid comprise of different bioactive agents (i.e. peptides and proteins) that defend these worms. There are various groups of bioactive agents such as proteases (name depends on proteins/peptide function or formal earthworm species name), metabolites (total 59 metabolites found in Eisenia fetida), metal binding proteins (2 proteins such as Ca2+ binding calmodulin and metallothionein), active proteins (include lysozyme, lysenin and eiseniapore etc.), antimicrobial peptides (antibacterial vermi-peptides family (AVPF), antimicrobial peptide I (PP-I), coelomic cytolytic factor (CCF, CCF-I and CCF like protein), fetidin, lysenin, lumbricin (lumbricin I, lumbricin PG, and lumbricusin), organic acids (fatty acids, succinic acids, and lauric acid) and other organic compounds (such as purine and vitamin D). The presence of above mentioned molecules confer therapeutic potential that affect energy intake and involve in decreasing oxidative stress, metabolic disturbances and pro-inflammatory conditions. The future perspectives of earthworm bioactive compounds are concerned with the development of provisional standards, purification and classification for utilizations in pharma industry.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common cancer disease and the 3rd cause of cancer related disease. Oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions are increases due to the expansion of hepatic cancer. Daphnetin is a well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug. The current experimental study was exploring the chemoprotective effect of daphnetin against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced HCC in rats and scrutinizing the possible mechanism. In this experimental study, Swiss Wistar rats were used for the current protocol and intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg) and phenobarbital (8 mg/kg) were used for the induction and progression of HCC and after induction the HCC, the rats were received the oral administration of different doses of daphnetin. Body weight was estimated at regular time intervals. Macroscopical evaluation was done at the end of the experimental study for the confirmation of hepatic nodules. Hepatic markers, antioxidant and inflammatory mediators were estimated in the serum of experimental rats. Daphnetin treatment successfully attenuated the hepatic injury induced by DEN/Pb as shown by the suppressed the levels of biochemical parameters including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (T-Bil) and total protein (TP). Daphnetin significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced the level of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and decreased the malonaldehyde (MDA) level. Daphnetin treatment significantly altered the level of phase I and phase II enzymes and also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); inflammatory mediators include cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear kappa B factor (NF-κB) and prostaglandin (PGE2). Collectively, we can say that daphnetin suggestively suppressed the hepatic cancer via suppression of antioxidant and inflammatory reactions.
In this study, we investigated the inhibition effects of matairesinol, pregnanolone, hamamelitannin, secoisolariciresinol, and secoisolariciresinol diglicoside compounds on HMG-CoA reductase and urease enzymes. We have obtained results for the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme at the millimolar level, and for the urease enzyme at the micromolar level. Molecular docking calculations were made for their biological activities were compared. In docking calculations, proteins of experimentally used enzymes, activities of SARS-CoV-2 virus against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein, and anti-oxidant protein were compared. Then, ADME/T calculations were made to use the molecules as drugs. Cytotoxicity potential of these complexes against human breast and prostate cancers demonstrated that these compounds had good cytotoxic effects. There is growing attention to phenolic molecules and their presumed role in avoiding diverse degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular and cancer diseases.
Excessive lipid accumulation in organs and adipocytes results in chronic inflammation. This causes irreversible organ dysfunction and the development of metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Ozonated olive oil shows anti-inflammatory effects when applied directly to the skin; however, there are no reports on its effects on lipid metabolism through its oral administration in rats. Hence, this study investigates the effects of oral ingestion of ozonated olive oil on the pathologies of obese model rats. Obese model Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed one of the following AIN-76 diets for four weeks: control diet: 6.5% corn oil + 0.5% olive oil, low ozonated oil diet: 6.5% corn oil + 0.45% olive oil + 0.05% ozonated olive oil, high ozonated oil diet: 6.5% corn oil + 0.5% ozonated olive oil. Control diet fed-Zucker lean rats were used as the reference. Growth parameters, hepatic lipids, hepatic enzyme activities, and serum parameters were determined. As the results, there was a dose-dependent improvement of hepatomegaly, fatty liver and elevated levels of hepatic injury markers in Zucker (fa/fa) rat upon ozonated olive oil consumption. Activities of hepatic enzymes related to lipid synthesis and lipid degradation were not affected by ozonated olive oil intake. On the other hand, there was a dose-dependent elimination of hepatic lipid secretion deficiency and suppression of inflammatory factors upon ozonated olive oil consumption. In conclusion, ozonated olive oil intake by Zucker (fa/fa) rats alleviates hepatic steatosis through the inhibition of triglyceride accumulation in the liver and suppression of inflammatory factors.
We previously conducted a study using HepG2 cells to compare the effect on the secreted apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (B-100/A-1) corresponding to the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL/HDL) among 13 types of trans-octadecenoic acid (t-18:1) positional isomers. The results revealed that trans-5-18:1 (t5) significantly increased B-100/A-1. In this study, 1% of t5 in the diet, corresponding to 2.08 energy%, was administrated golden Syrian hamsters for 4 weeks to reveal the effects on lipid profiles, including LDL/HDL, by comparing cis-9-octadecenoic acid (OA, oleic acid), trans-9-octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11-octadecenoic acid (VA), and trans-9,trans-12- octadecadienoic acid (TT). LDL/HDL was not significantly different among the groups. However, the cholesterol concentration of medium very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was significantly lower in the TT diet than in the OA and t5 diets. The cholesterol concentration of small VLDL was significantly lower in the TT diet than in the OA, t5, and EA diets. The cholesterol concentration of large LDL was significantly lower in the TT diet than in the t5 and EA diets. However, no significant difference was detected between the TT and OA diets. In contrast, the cholesterol concentration of very small HDL was significantly higher in the TT diet than in the t5 diet. These results would support that lipid metabolism is affected by the structure of TFA in animals. However, t5-18:1 did not significantly change any lipid profile compared to OA existing in nature, and the previous result from the cell experiment showing that t5 increased B-100/A-1 (LDL/HDL) was not confirmed in this animal experiment.
Recycling technology contributes to sustainability and has received considerable interest in fulfilling consumable products’ social demands, including papers. Recycled fibers are the primary source of the papermaking industry. Papers, valuable daily used materials, can be further recycled for further implementation. Here, we report a simple method for recycling waste papers for further use. Our method includes re-pulping, deinking, bleaching, and papermaking. The sample and the recycled papers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD data shows the presence of cellulose and filler minerals in the sample and the recycled papers. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and methyl functional groups in the recycled papers suggesting that the deinking and bleaching did not cause any structural changes. The fibrous structures were also sustained after recycling, as confirmed by SEM studies demonstrating that the recycling was successful and the papers can be further used and recycled. EDS analysis further confirmed the filler minerals in the sample paper with a trace amount of lead, which decreased upon bleaching the paper. The structure and properties of the sample and the recycled papers were quite similar, inferring that waste papers can be recycled again and different products from low to higher grade papers can be fabricated.