This review article describes preparations and properties of various types of water-soluble cutting fluids additives derived from various materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups: carboxylic acids, esters, dibasic acids, ethers, amides, substituted fatty acids and others for iron materials. Testing methods for water-soluble cutting fluids are described on ways for laboratory and practical tests for factory.
The lipid content and the composition pattern of the lipid class including fatty acid composition in the eggs of two different Indian silurid cat fishes Ompok pabda and Wallagu attu have been examined. The lipid content of O. pabda and W. attu (on dry basis) are about 14.7% and 17.8% respectively. The major lipid classes are phospolipid (PL) and triacylglycerol (TAG). The O. pabda egg lipid contains more PL while the W. attu egg lipid contains more TAG. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) constitutes the major phospholipid followed by phosphatidylinositol (PI). PI represents in about 31.7% and 21.3% of total PC in O. pabda and W. attu respectively while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (about 28.0%) is significantly higher in the egg of W. attu than O. pabda (9.6%). Cholesterol content in egg of O. pabda is also higher (about 9.6%) than W. attu (4.1%). The lipids are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and they are mainly concentrated in the respective PL fractions. Among PUFAs the arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6 AA) is present at about 9.3% in both egg PL. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA) is significantly lower in egg lipids of both W. attu (1.8%) and O. pabda (3.2%), whereas docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 DHA) is predominantly higher (14.6% and 18.1% in W. attu and O. pabda respectively) in their PL fractions.
Excessive intake of trans-fatty acids increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Much attention is drawn to the consumption of trans-fatty acids worldwide, and regulations for trans-fatty acids are instituted in several countries. Precise and convenient methods for determination of trans-fatty acid level are required, but there is no standard method using capillary Gas Chromatography in Japan. Therefore, for the new standard method, collaborative studies were carried out. The results were as follows: 1) Heptadecanoate (C17:0 free fatty acid) was chosen for internal standard substance. 2) Two Gas Chromatography columns, SP2560 (100 m) column (100% cyanopropyl polysiloxane liquid phase) and TC-70 (60 m) column (70% cyanopropyl polysilphenylene-siloxane liquid phase), were examined in the collaborative studies. We measured the edible oil samples containing 2-45 g/100 g of trans-fatty acids, and trans-fatty acid contents were quantitatively the same with both columns. The range of reproducibility coefficient of variation were below 10%. 3) Fats and oils sampled were soybean, rapeseed, palm, palm kernel, beef tallow, pork fat and their hydrogenated forms, for which good peak resolution was achieved. From the above results, the technique evaluated in the present study was considered to be suitable for determination of the content of trans-fatty acids in fats and oils exclusive of fish oil and milk fat.
We performed a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study on moderately obese male and female subjects (71 subjects) with a body mass index ranging from 23 to 30 to evaluate the efficacy of 12-week intake of polyphenols extracted from apples and hop bract (600 mg/day). We confirmed that 12-week ingestion of polyphenol-containing capsules significantly decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. The effects of the apple polyphenol-containing capsules were more marked than those of the hop bract polyphenol-containing capsules. The visceral fat area and the level of adiponectin in the group administered apple polyphenols improved in comparison with the control group. Blood and physical examinations revealed on clinical problems, and no adverse reactions were observed during the ingestion period. These results demonstrate that apple polyphenols regulate fat metabolism in healthy subjects with relatively high body mass index.
Recently environmental control is regarded as important for good human health conditions, and toxic substances, including carcinogens and endocrine disruptors should be eliminated from our living environment. Hence easy quantitative methods are expected for a high level of environmental control. Our previous paper describes an easy quantitative analysis of nitrosamines (NAs) by capillary electrophoresis with an untreated fused silica capillary installed in an ordinary apparatus. In this paper, utilizing a novel type capillary column having sulfonated inner wall was investigated for improvements of separation performance and reproducibility. A sulfonated capillary causes fast and stabile electroosmotic flow because its inner wall is strongly negative charged. On a performance comparison of a sulfonated capillary with an untreated fused silica, analysis time reduction of c.a. forty percent was achieved, and relative standard deviations of migration times and peak responses were less than one third. In addition sample concentrations giving detection and quantitation limits were also reduced to a half.
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These show not only the excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. shanxiensis, new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophilic than the previously reported MELs) were found in the culture medium. As a result of the structural characterization, the glycolipids were identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2′, 4′-di-O-acetyl-3′-O-alka(e)noyl)-β-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4′-O-acetyl-3′-O-alka(e)noyl-2′-O-butanoyl)-β-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the new MELs possessed a much shorter chain (C2 or C4) at the C-2′ position of the mannose moiety compared to the MELs hitherto reported, which mainly possess a medium-chain acid (C10) at the position. They would thus show higher hydrophilicity and/or water-solubility, and expand the development of the environmentally advanced yeast biosurfactants.
Self-diffusion coefficients and viscosities for the saturated hydrocarbons having six carbon atoms such as hexane, 2-methylpentane (2MP), 3-methylpentane (3MP), 2,2-dimethylbutane (22DMB), 2,3-dimethylbutane (23DMB), methylcyclopentane (McP) and cyclohexane (cH) were measured at various constant temperatures; obtained results were discussed in connection with their molar volumes, molecular structures and thermodynamic properties. The values of self-diffusion coefficients as the microscopic property were inversely proportional to those of viscosities as the macroscopic property. The order of their viscosities was almost same to those of their melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion, which reflect the attractive interactions among their molecules. On the other hand, the order of the self-diffusion coefficients inversely related to the order of the melting temperatures and the enthalpies of the fusion. Namely, the compound having the larger attractive interaction mostly shows the less mobility in its liquid state, e.g., cyclohexane (cH), having the largest attractive interaction and the smallest molar volume exhibits an extremely large viscosity and small self-diffusion coefficient comparing with other hydrocarbons. However, a significant exception was 22DMB, being most close to a sphere: In spite of the smallest attractive interaction and the largest molar volume of 22DMB in the all samples, it has the thirdly larger viscosity and the thirdly smaller self-diffusion coefficient. Consequently, the dynamical properties such as self-diffusion and viscosity for the saturated hydrocarbons are determined not only by their attractive interactions but also by their molecular structures.