This review briefly summarizes recent developments in fabrication techniques of shape-controlled nanostructures of fullerene crystals across different length scales and the self-assembled mesostructures of functionalized fullerenes both in solutions and solid substrates.
In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm–1 was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm–1. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.
In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ≥ 1). β-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-β-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. β-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50700), followed by (E)-β-ionone (15444) and decanal (3510). In particular, β-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, β-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil.
Amphiphilic telomers with multiple sugar chains and a terminal undecyl or heptadecyl chain (i.e., CnAm-mGEMA, where n and m represent alkyl chain lengths of 11 or 17 with a degree of polymerization of 2.0 or 3.0 for glucosyloxyethyl methacrylate (GEMA) units, respectively) were synthesized via monomeric radical telomerization in the presence of 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride. Surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering were measured to characterize the solution properties of the synthesized telomers. In addition, the effects of alkyl chain length and degree of polymerization of hydrophilic GEMA units on the measured properties were evaluated by comparison with those of conventional polyoxyethylene dodecyl ether nonionic surfactants. CnAm-mGEMA telomers exhibited higher critical micelle concentration (CMC) values than polyoxyethylene dodecyl ether surfactants with similar number of hydrophilic groups did. The synthesized telomers are highly efficient in reducing the surface tension of water, despite the relatively large hydrophilic structures within the sugar units (GEMA). A unique behavior was observed in that adsorption at the air-water interface and solution aggregation occurred simultaneously at a concentration below CMC (as determined by the surface tension method). This suggests that aggregate formation occurs readily in solution along with the adsorption at the interface because of strong attractive interactions between multiple sugar GEMA chains. Further, aggregates formed by CnAm-mGEMA telomers differ depending on the number of sugar chains, i.e., an increase in the degree of polymerization of the telomers increases the size of the aggregates. This indicates that it is easier for telomers with more sugar GEMA chains to form large aggregates due to the interactions between their hydroxyl groups.
Amino acid-based anionic gemini surfactants (2CndiCys, where n represents an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 12, or 14 carbons and “di” and “Cys” indicate adipoyl and cysteine, respectively) were synthesized using the amino acid cysteine. Biodegradability, equilibrium surface tension, and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the properties of gemini surfactants. Additionally, the effects of alkyl chain length, number of chains, and structure on these properties were evaluated by comparing previously reported gemini surfactants derived from cystine (2CnCys) and monomeric surfactants (CnCys). 2CndiCys shows relatively higher biodegradability than does CnCys and previously reported sugar-based gemini surfactants. Both critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension decrease when alkyl chain length is increased from 10 to 12, while a further increase in chain length to 14 results in increased CMC and surface tension. This indicates that long-chain gemini surfactants have a decreased aggregation tendency due to the steric hindrance of the bulky spacer as well as premicelle formation at concentrations below the CMC and are poorly packed at the air/water interface. Formation of micelles (measuring 2 to 5 nm in solution) from 2CndiCys shows no dependence on alkyl chain length. Further, shaking the mixtures of aqueous 2CndiCys surfactant solutions and squalane results in the formation of oil-in-water type emulsions. The highly stable emulsions are formed using 2C12diCys or 2C14diCys solution and squalane in a 1:1 or 2:1 volume ratio.
The elastomer materials with hieralchical structure and suitable wettability are useful as biological surface model. In the present study, urethane resin and silicone resin elastomers with hierarchical rough surfaces were prepared and referred to as “fractal elastomers”. We found a hierarchy of small projections that existed over larger ones on these surfaces. These elastomers were synthesized by transferring a fractal surface structure of alkylketene dimer. The rough structure enhanced the hydrophobicity and weakened friction resistance of the elastomer surfaces. These materials can be useful for artificial skin with biomimetic surface properties.
Lipase-catalyzed ascorbyl oleate synthesis is eco-friendly and selective way of production of liposoluble biocompatible antioxidants, but still not present on an industrial level due to the high biocatalyst costs. In this study, response surface methodology was applied in order to estimate influence of individual experimental factors, identify interactions among them, and to determine optimum conditions for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone, in terms of limiting substrate conversion, product yield, and yield per mass of consumed enzyme. As a biocatalyst, commercial immobilized preparation of lipase B from Candida antarctica, Novozym 435, was used. In order to develop cost-effective process, at reaction conditions at which maximum amount of product per mass of biocatalyst was produced (60°C, 0.018 % (v/v) of water, 0.135 M of vitamin C, substrates molar ratio 1:8, and 0.2 % (w/v) of lipase), possibilities for further increase of ester yield were investigated. Addition of molecular sieves at 4th hour of reaction enabled increase of yield from 16.7 mmol g–1 to 19.3 mmol g–1. Operational stability study revealed that after ten reaction cycles enzyme retained 48 % of its initial activity. Optimized synthesis with well-timed molecular sieves addition and repeated use of lipase provided production of 153 mmol per gram of enzyme. Further improvement of productivity was achieved using procedure for the enzyme reactivation.
Crude glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production. In this study, we isolated a yeast strain that grows vigorously using crude glycerol as a carbon source, and tested the effects of culture conditions on triacylglycerol (TG) production. TYC-2187, isolated from wild grapes and identified as Pseudozyma sp., converted high-concentration crude glycerol into TG more efficiently than other strains of the genus Pseudozyma. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain indicated that TYC-2187 diverged from other strains of the genus Pseudozyma. Optimum culture temperature and optimum initial pH of culture medium, that maximized TG yield of TYC-2187, were 25°C and pH 6.0, respectively. Optimum nitrogen source was yeast extract and optimum concentration was 10 g/L. Optimum concentration of glycerol, when the yeast was cultured for 48 h under optimum conditions, was 80 g/L. TG yield peaked at 15.7 g/L at 48 h and then remained at this level until 66 h. In addition, much of the glycerol in the medium had been consumed by 48 h. Fatty acid composition of TG produced by TYC-2187, including linolenic acid methyl ester content, iodine value, and cetane number, complied with biodiesel standards. These results suggest that the TYC-2187 yeast strain is superbly able to produce TG that is suitable for biodiesel production using crude glycerol.
Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 is a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) and an inducer of systemic defense responses. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GP17-2 on the reduction of cucumber leaf damage caused by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare were investigated. Cucumber leaves treated with the culture filtrate (CF) of GP17-2 exhibited a clear systemic resistance against subsequent infection with C. orbiculare. The number and size of lesions caused by the disease were reduced in CF-treated plants, in comparison with that in the control plants. The results showed that CF treatment could trigger a set of defense responses, including the production of hydrogen peroxide, formation of lignin, emission of ultra-weak photons, accumulation of salicylic acid, and increase in the transcription of the genes for the defense-related enzymes chitinase and peroxidase. Furthermore, subsequent inoculation of CF-pretreated plants with C. orbiculare resulted in higher systemic expression of the genes for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase relative to nontreated, inoculated plants; this indicated that CF mediates a potentiation state in the plant, enabling it to mount a rapid and effective response on infection by C. orbiculare. Our results indicate that the ability of CF of GP17-2 to stimulate active oxygen species, lignification, SA accumulation, and defense gene activation and potentiation in the host is the possible mode of action of the GP17-2 elicitor and inducer of induced systemic resistance against C. orbiculare infection in cucumber plants.
5,7,3’,4’-Tetrahydroxyflav-2-en-3-ol 3-O-β-D-glucoside was isolated from the seed coats of immature black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). This compound is a reduced form of cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (cyanidin 3-G) which was obtained by reaction with hydrochloric acid. The molecule has reducing activity for a tetrazolium derivative (WST-1) in the presence of 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate (1-methoxy PMS) in a similar manner to NADH. The seed coats of immature black soybeans also contain epicatechin as a major constituent, while cyanidin 3-G and procyanidin B2 are present at lower concentrations. Immature brown soybeans did not contain 5,7,3’,4’-tetrahydroxyflav-2-en-3-ol 3-O-β-D-glucoside, but did contain both epicatechin and procyanidin B2. Immature yellow soybeans contained none of them.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the essential oils isolated from flower and leaf in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their aroma-active composition. The essential oil obtained from the two parts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O). Flower and leaf oils, 38 and 36 constituents, representing 96.4 and 91.0% of the total oil composition, respectively, were identified. The main compounds in flower oil were camphor (47.64%), bornyl acetate (11.87%), and nojigiku alcohol (6.29%), whereas those in leaf oil were camphor (39.14%), nojigiku alcohol (10.76%) and γ-muurolene (7.02%). 13 Aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O analysis in flower oil and 12 in leaf oil. The main aroma-active compounds in flower oil were camphor (camphor, FD (flavor dilution) = 7, OAV (odor active value) = 136913), bornyl acetate (camphor, FD = 6, OAV = 113711), and β-caryophyllene (spicy, FD = 5, OAV = 116480). In leaf oil, the main aroma-active compounds were camphor (camphor, FD = 7, OAV = 106784), nojigiku alcohol (camphor, FD = 5, OAV = not determined), and β-caryophyllene (spicy, FD = 6, OAV = 526267).
Hollow titania nanoparticles of single-nanometer size have been prepared from titanium oxysulfate (TiOSO4) using poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer molecules (Generations 5 with amino terminal groups) as a template. At low pH (pH 1), hydrolysis of the titania precursor was attenuated and the sol-gel reaction preferentially proceeded at the dendrimer surface. Calcination at 450°C yielded crystalline titania nanoparticles of 5.5 nm diameter with a ~2 nm cavity. These hollow titania nanoparticles showed a larger band-gap energy than solid particles of corresponding size.