Biodiesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils (edible or non-edible oil) and animal fats, that runs in diesel engines-cars, buses, trucks, construction equipment, boats, generators, and oil home heating units. Biodiesel has been gaining worldwide popularity as an alternative energy source because it is non toxic, biodegradable & non flammable. Various edible and non edible oils, like rice bran oil, coconut oil, Jatropha curcas, castor oil, cottonseed oil, mahua, karanja which are either surplus and are nonedible type can be used for preparation of biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used either in the pure form or as blends on conventional petrodiesel in automobiles without any major modifications. Its biodegradability makes it eco-friendly. It may lead to a revolutionary transformation of the current economic & energy scenario with an era of economic bloom & prosperity for our society. This review paper describes the production, its properties, composition and future potential of biodiesel.
Novel four 2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-4-ylium derivatives were obtained with increase of UV absorption at 350 nm and browning of the solution by heating paste lecithin from soybean (SL) in octane. These four derivatives were characterized the factor based on UV absorption at 350 nm. The SL was separated into the hexane (DSSL fr.) and 60% ethanol in water frs. by liquid- liquid partition method. Even when the DSSL fr. was heated in octane more than 9 h, the four derivatives were not formed and increase of any UV absorption was also not observed but the solution color was slightly yellowing. On the other hand, the formation of four derivatives and increase of UV absorption at 350 nm were observed when DSSL and 60% ethanol in water frs. were combined and, then, heated in octane. From the 60% ethanol in water fr, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose were isolated and identified as compounds which involved the formation of the derivatives with the DSSL fr. When DSPE (1,2-di-O-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine) and any hexose were combined and then heated, two 2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-4-ylium derivatives generated with increase of UV absorption at 350 nm and browning. From these results, it is concluded that the formation of derivatives, with increase of the UV absorption at 350 nm and browning, are based on the reaction of sugars and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in SL.
Washing efficiency was analyzed by a statistical method similar to a method used in a calculation of probability of failure. The method uses statistical distribution of adhesive force of soil and statistical distribution of detergent power. An amount of soil removed was calculated from two distributions. A colored oily soil was spotted on a cotton cloth, and the soiled cloth was washed by a Terg-O-Tometer with alcohol ethoxylate (AE) aqueous solution. Identical soiled cloth was washed four-times using a fresh solution per wash. K/S value of test cloth was measured by digital image-processing system, and removal efficiency was calculated from the K/S value. Temporal changes of removal efficiencies were analyzed by computer simulation, and optimum parameters expressing detergent power were sought. A minimum value of difference between predicted value and experimental value was obtained in each washing condition. Detergent power calculated from parameters increased along with washing temperature and AE concentration. In two-time repetitive washing test by two distinct washing conditions, experimental removal efficiency of second-time washing test was predicted by computer simulation. The results showed that removal efficiency could be analyzed theoretically by the method using two statistical distributions.
To establish an effective washing method, experiments were conducted on an alternating flow system to bring about the flow through fabric material and the deformation of fabric. Air was introduced into an alternating flow so that less detergent would be required for washing. Examination was made of, concentration of detergent, washing time, and the effect of the amount of air on detergency. By applying the present method to the washing solutions of concentration over c.m.c, it was clearly shown the possibility of decreasing the amount of detergent as much as 50 % with no reduction in detersive efficiency. It was also shown that the detersive efficiency is related to the dynamic surface tension.
Acetaminophen (APAP) is mostly eliminated at a therapeutic dose through glucuronidation and sulfatation, while a small fraction is oxidized by cytochromes P450 (CYP) into N-acetyl-P-benzoquinone-imine (NAPQI). NAPQI, a highly reactive metabolite of APAP is then conjugated with glutathione (GSH) and the product can be excreted into the urine. At an APAP overdose, glucuronidation and the sulfatation pathway are saturated and the production of NAPQI increases, resulting in a rapid depletion of the GSH concentration. Subsequently, NAPQI reacts with cellular macromolecules causing hepatic injury. Based on our previous studies, it was shown that APAP-induced hepatotoxity in rats was protected by butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but the in protection mechanisms could be somewhat different. In this study, we have confirmed the protective effects of BHA and BHT against APAP-induced liver injury using histopathological and morphological observations of the rat liver. Rats were given BHA or BHT (0.5% each) as the ingredient added to their diets for 7 days, then APAP (500 mg / kg IP) was injected. On the other hand, BHA has almost no effects on the induction of hepatic heat shock proteins, but BHT depressed them in the rats administered APAP during 0-24 h. This means that the differences in the inhibition mechanisms of BHA and BHT are the induction of chaperones or other protein(s) and increasing the hepatic GSH accumulation or decreasing the degenerated protein in the hepatic cells by the putative protein conjugated with NAPQI in APAP-induced liver injury.
Monoacylglycerol of conjugated linoleic acid (MAG-CLA) is synthesized efficiently by esterification of a free fatty acid mixture of CLA (FFA-CLA) with glycerol using Penicillium camembertii lipase. However, the reaction mixture contained 3-7 wt% FFAs (the acid value, 6-14 mg KOH/g), although the acid value of MAG, which can be used as a food additive, is prescribed to be <6 mg KOH/g (the content of FFAs, <about 3 wt%). Hence, the removal of FFAs in the reaction mixture by winterization was attempted. After the enzyme reaction, the reaction mixture was separated to the oil and glycerol layers. The oil layer (referred to as Rmix[MAG]) included 21.6 wt% glycerol, and its oil part was composed of 5.2 wt% FFAs, 87.0 wt% MAGs, and 7.8 wt% diacylglycerols (DAGs). Here, oil part means FFAs, MAGs, and DAGs in Rmix[MAG]. Rmix[MAG] was first dissolved in 4 mL hexane per 1 g of the Rmix, and the mixture was kept at 0°C for 24 h. The crystallized materials were recovered by centrifugation at -20°C. The content of FFAs in the precipitates decreased from 5.2 to 2.0 wt%, and the content of MAGs increased from 87.0 to 95.8 wt%. To further remove FFAs, solvent winterization of the precipitates was conducted similarly, resulting in a decrease of the content of FFAs from 2.0 to 0.9 wt% and increase of the content of MAGs from 95.8 to 98.4 wt%. The recovery of MAGs through a series of procedures was 84.7% of the initial content of MAGs in the reaction mixture. These results showed that solvent winterization is very effective for purification of MAG-CLA from the reaction mixture obtained by lipase-catalyzed esterification of FFA-CLA and glycerol.
Gelation tests of rod like liquid crystals (LCs), columnar LCs, and cholesteric LCs rod-like have been employed. 4-Cyanophenyl 4-n-alkoxybenzoates, 4-cyano-4’-alkoxybiphenyls, 4,4’-dialkanoyloxybiphenyls, azoxybenzene derivatives, 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaalkoxytriphenylenes, and cholesteryl esters, except for cholesteryl alkyl carbonates and cholesteryl esters with alkenyl side chain, gelled organic liquids. By using these LCs as organogelator, terpene and perfume gels containing 95% or more of terpenes and essential oil could be prepared.