Journal of Oleo Science
Online ISSN : 1347-3352
Print ISSN : 1345-8957
ISSN-L : 1345-8957
Volume 57 , Issue 9
Showing 1-7 articles out of 7 articles from the selected issue
Oils and Fats
  • Munkhjargal Burenjargal, Nagao Totani
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 9 Pages 463-470
    Published: 2008
    Released: August 06, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have previously proposed that thermally processed oil holds promise as a dietary supplement intended for weight loss. We employed a thermal process whereby oil was heated to 180°C for 10 h in the absence and presence of gluten. We compared the effects of three diets, untreated oil, heated oil, heated oil and gluten on body weight, retroperitoneal weight and lipid composition and fecal lipid contents. Ten week-old male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a diet containing 7 wt% of the oil for 12 weeks. The oil heated with gluten showed low levels of food efficiency and oil absorption ratios, and high levels of fecal oil excretion, oil content and bile acid content. Diets containing thermally treated oils resulted in significantly lower retroperitoneal tissue weights and lipid contents as compared to the control group; the groups fed the heated oil and gluten diets showed a general decrease in the fatty acid (especially linoleic acid) amount. In conclusion, oil heated with gluten was not fully digested and thus excreted without showing any detrimental effects on either the organs or feces. This resulted in safe and effective weight loss in growing adult rats.
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  • Neeraj Praphulla Awasthi, Santosh K. Upadhayay, R.P. Singh
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 9 Pages 471-475
    Published: 2008
    Released: August 06, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fatty acid amides like erucamide are mainly used for lubrication and as slip agent to decrease friction in polymer and plastic industry. Erucamide is normally synthesized by ammonolysis of triglycerides or fatty acids at 200°C and at high pressure (345-690 kPa.). However using urea in place of ammonia the economic synthesis of erucamide is possible at atmospheric pressure at approx 190°C. In present investigation, the kinetics of synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid has been investigated. The optimum conditions for the synthesis of erucamide have also been determined. 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid to urea, 190°C temperature and catalyst [P2O5 with (NH4)2H PO4, {(1:1) w/w }] concentration 3% (by wt. of erucic acid) were the optimum condition for synthesis of erucamide from erucic acid and can obtain a maximum yield of 92% of pure erucamide. Some other catalysts as titanium-iso -propoxide, phosphorus pent oxide were also tried but these catalysts were not economical.
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  • A.K.M. Azad Shah, Mikio Kinoshita, Hideyuki Kurihara, Masao Ohnishi, K ...
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 9 Pages 477-484
    Published: 2008
    Released: August 06, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Complex lipids in the starfish Asterias amurensis were characterized and the influence of sphingoid bases on human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells was also investigated. Lipid content of gonad and viscera were 3.3% and 6.8%, respectively, in wet basis. The main lipid class in gonad was ceramide monohexoside (CMH) while triglyceride (TG) was predominant in the viscera. The most abundant fatty acid in the polar lipid was eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), with the gonad and viscera samples having the highest proportion of 41.5% and 32.7%, respectively, of total fatty acids. Starfish internal organ contained enormous amount (0.7% in wet base) of glycosylceramide. Sphingoid bases of the glycosylceramide were mainly consisted of d22:2, d22:1 and d18:3. This sphingoid base exerted an apoptotic activity on Caco-2 cells. Thus, starfish could be used as a potential source of precious and useful complex lipids.
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Detergents and Interface Science
  • Lok Kumar Shrestha, Yohei Matsumoto, Keiichi Ihara, Kenji Aramaki
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 9 Pages 485-494
    Published: 2008
    Released: August 06, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We present the study on dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational elasticity properties of dilute aqueous systems of pentaglycerol fatty acid esters (pentaglycerol monostearate, C18G5, and pentaglycerol monooleate, C18:1G5), whey protein, sodium caseinate, and mixed surfactant and protein at room temperature. The adsorption kinetics at the air-liquid interface has been studied by bubble pressure tensiometer and the oscillation bubble (rising drop) method. It has been shown that the dynamic surface tension curve basically presents two-regions; namely induction region and rapid fall region. During the induction time the adsorption is the diffusion-controlled process of amphiphilic surfactant or protein molecules from the bulk of the solution to the interface. Whey protein and sodium caseinate showed longer induction time ∼10000 ms compared to the surfactant systems, where induction time was estimated to be ∼1000 ms. However, in both the protein and surfactant systems, the induction time goes on decreasing with increasing the concentrations. The similar behavior was observed in the mixed system, and lower surface tension values were observed at higher concentrations. The fitting of the experimental data to the theoretical equation shows the presence of two relaxation mechanisms of widely different time scale for the adsorption of surfactant or protein molecules at the interface. The relaxation time strongly varies with the concentrations following the power law, and at fixed concentration it was the highest for whey protein and the lowest for C18:1G5 system. The surface dilatational elasticity determined within the frequency range of ∼0.1 to 1 cycle/s supports the dynamic surface tension data.
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  • Keiko Gotoh, Yumiko Tagawa, Izumi Tabata
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 9 Pages 495-501
    Published: 2008
    Released: August 06, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of ultraviolet light irradiation on the characteristics of the polyethylene (PE) surface was investigated by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. The PE film was prepared on the gold electrodes of the QCM by spin-coating from the solution and then was treated by the excimer UV lamp in ambient air. The changes in the hydrophilic properties, moisture adsorption, and water retention of the PE film due to the UV irradiation were determined from the frequency change of the QCM. To evaluate the detergency of the PE film, stearic acid as model oily soil was deposited onto the PE film formed on the QCM by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, and was ultrasonically cleaned in aqueous detergent solutions containing ethanol or surfactant. The removal efficiency obtained from the frequency change of the QCM was found to increase considerably after the UV irradiation. From independently determined contact angles and the surface free energy components of the PE film, the free energy change resulting from the penetration of the detergent solution between stearic acid and PE in the zone of contact was calculated. Good relation was found between the removal efficiency and the free energy change, indicating that the increase in the detergency of the PE surface by UV irradiation was explained by surface energetics.
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Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Chemistry and Organic Synthesis
  • Kanji Kubo, Emi Yamamoto, Yasuo Kakihara, Taisuke Matsumoto, Akira Mor ...
    2008 Volume 57 Issue 9 Pages 513-519
    Published: 2008
    Released: August 06, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Crystal structures of 2-aminotropone (1), N,N’-di(tropon-2-yl)piperazine (2), and 5-(4-ethoxyphenylazo)tropolone (3) have been elucidated by X-crystallographic analysis. 2-Aminotropone (1) contains three crystallographically independent molecules in the crystal lattice. The NH2 groups of 2-aminotropone unit of 1 participate in the N-H···O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Two tropone units of N,N’-di(tropon-2-yl)piperazine (2) have an anti orientation to the piperazine ring. The crystal packing of 2 is consolidated by π···π, C-H···π, and C-H···O interactions. 5-(4-Ethoxyphenylazo)tropolone (3) forms O-H···O hydrogen bond dimmers about inversion centres, involving the OH group and an intermolecular carbonyl O acceptor.
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