Some nutritional properties of the peanut kernel and oils were established. The oil yields from these kernels vary from 32.7 % to 45.4 %. The content of protein ranged between 25.9 % to 32.4 %, with a mean value of 28.93 %. The mineral contents of peanut kernels were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The contents of Na ranged from 867.7 mg/kg to 1186.1 mg/kg, with a mean value of 1004.7 mg/ kg. The phosphor contents of kernels ranged between 2769.7 mg/kg to 3784.9 mg/kg, with a mean value of 3433.91 mg/kg. The oil had a refractive Index (n 20) between 1.451 to 1.461 and a saponifiable value between 165.3 to 187.6. The main fatty acids in peanut kernel oils are oleic, linoleic and palmitic. Statistical differences between parameter to locatins were important at p < 0.05. As a result, the present study showed the peanut kernels of the researched species of Arachis kernels from Turkey to be a potential source of valuable oil which might be used for edible and other industrial applications.
This study was to characterize the seed fat from Madhuca longifolia known as Mee fat and its solid and liquid fractions with the objective of distinguishing them. A sample of Mee fat was partitioned into solid and liquid fractions using acetone as the solvent medium. The isolated fractions were compared to the native Mee fat sample with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as, gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic analyses indicated that there were wide variations between the native sample and its fractions with respect to iodine value (IV), and slip melting point (SMP). The cloud point (CP) of the liquid fraction was found to be 10.5°C. Fatty acid compositional analyses showed that the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic and stearic went up in the high-melting fraction (HMF) while in low-melting fraction (LMF) the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) such as oleic and lenoleic increased. According to the HPLC analyses, Mee fat had a tiacyl glycerol (TAG) sequence similar to that of palm oil. After fractionation, the solid and liquid fractions obtained were found to have TAG profiles very much different from the native sample. Thermal analyses by DSC showed that Mee fat had two-widely separated high and low melting thermal transitions, a feature which was beneficial for the effective separation of solid and liquid fractions. The thermal profiles displayed by the fractions were clearly distinguishable from that of the native sample.
In this study, fatty haydroxamic acids (FHAs), which have biological activities as antibiotics and antifungal, have been synthesized via refluxing of triacylglycrides, palm olein, palm stearin or corn oil with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The products were characterized using the complex formation test of hydroxamic acid group with zinc(I), copper(II) and iron(III), various technique methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Parameters that may affect the conversion of oils to FHAs including the effect of reaction time, effect of organic solvent and effect of hydro/oil molar issue were also investigated in this study. Results of characterization indicate that FHAs were successfully produced from triacylglycrides. The conversion percentages of palm stearin, palm olein and corn oil into their fatty hydroxamic acids are 82, 81 and 78, respectively. Results also showed that hexane is the best organic solvent to produce the FHAs from the three oils used in this study. The optimum reaction time to achieve the maximum conversion percentage of the oils to FHAs was found to be 10 hours for all the three oils, while the optimum molar ration of hydro/to oil was found to be 7:1 for all the different three oils.
Molecular interactions between benzene and hydrocarbons having six carbon atoms, such as hexane, cyclohexane and 1-hexene in their binary liquid mixtures were studied through the measurements of density, viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation time and 1H NMR chemical shift. CH/π attraction between hexane and benzene in their binary mixture was observed in a relatively benzene rich region, whereas a special attractive interaction was not observed between cyclohexane and benzene. On the other hand, 1-hexene and benzene in their binary mixtures were characteristic in their self-diffusion coefficient behaviors: 1-hexene more strongly attract benzene not only by the CH/π attraction but also probably by the p/p interaction between the double bond in 1-hexene and the p-electron in benzene ring.
We discussed the relation between aquatic toxicity and interfacial activity during biodegradation with using LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) and AE (Alcohol Ethoxylate). The change of death rate of Daphnia magna, surface tension, concentration of surfactant, and biodegradation by oxygen demand during biodegradation were measured. As a result, a rapid decrease in toxicity and rapid increase in surface tension were observed within the time before biodegradation based on oxygen demand started to increase. These rapid changes in toxicity and surface tension occurred due to the structural change of surfactant molecules in the primary biodegradation process, which was confirmed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. We also performed re-addition test to study the effects of acclimatization since it takes an important role on boidegradation, and found that the acclimatization significantly accelerated the primary biodegradation, which were indicated by increase in surface tension and decrease in aquatic toxicity. These results show that the environmental risk of surfactants should be considered not only with the biodegradation based on oxygen demand but also with the decrease of interfacial activity through the primary biodegradation process.
It has been reported that oil thermally processed with wheat gluten (gluten oil) exhibited safe weight-loss promoting effects in animal experiments. However, as the oil has a high color index, and its chemical properties and smell differ from those of fresh oil, it is uncertain if the oil will find market acceptance. In order to resolve the issue, frying oil was heated with soybean protein under reduced pressure (soybean protein oil), resulting in a product with an appearance, chemical properties and smell comparable to those of fresh oil. This improved oil was mixed (7 wt%) with powdered AIN93G no fat, defined standard diet and fed to 10-week-old Wistar rats ad libitum. The experimental rats grew normally, ingesting the same amount as that of the control rats; however, there was a negative correlation between body weight increases and fecal weight increases. After the 12-week feeding period, all the rats were sacrificed to obtain blood and organs. In the experimental group, liver weight, retroperitoneal fat tissue weight and serum triacylglycerol (TG) levels decreased significantly. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and histological analysis supported the safety of the improved oil. In conclusion, it was found that soybean protein oil inhibited body weight increases without any adverse effects in animal experiments. The oil holds promise as a novel dieting oil that steadily decreases body weight at an appropriate rate.
A new iridoid glycoside, 9-epi-6α-methoxy geniposidic acid (4), three new hemiterpene glycosides, 3-methylbut-3-enyl 2′-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nonioside K) (6), 3-methylbut-3-enyl 6′-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nonioside L) (8), and 3-methylbut-3-enyl 6′-O-(β-D-xylofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nonioside M) (9), and two new saccharide fatty acid esters, 6′-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-1′-O-[(2ξ)-2-methylbutanoyl]-β-D-glucopyranose (nonioside N) (16) and 6′-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-1′-O-[(2ξ)-2-methylbutanoyl]-β-D-glucopyranose (nonioside O) (17), were isolated from a methanol extract of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni), along with 11 known compounds, namely, three iridoid glycosides (1-3), two hemiterpene glycosides (5 and 7), and five saccharide fatty acid esters (10-15). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-17 on the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), 13 compounds (1, 3, 4, 6-14, and 17) exhibited marked inhibitory effects with 34-49% reduction of melanin content at 100 μM with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (91-116% of cell viability at 100 μM).