It is well known that lipids form various kinds of self-assembled structures. First, lipid nanoparticles dispersed with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were introduced. The influence of polymers on the lipid self-assembled structures was evaluated by small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). Self-assembled structures containing higher alcohols have attracted much attention in the cosmetic industry. The α-form hydrated crystalline phase (often called α-gel) is one of the hydrated crystalline phases which can be exhibited by surfactants and higher alcohols. As surfactants in this study, an ionic complex or a silicone type were used. This review also reports the lipid membrane fluidity by using fluorescence spectroscopy.
In this study, the antioxidative capacity of caffeic acid (CA), ascorbyl palmitate (AP), α-tocopherol (α-TO), and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was evaluated under the thermal oxidation model, in which 200 ppm of each compound was added to soybean oil, followed by thermal oxidation at 180°C for 32 h. Change of viscosity, acid value (AV), conjugated dienoic acid value (CDAV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), total polar materials (TPM), and the ratio of C18:2 to C16:0 (LA/PA) were evaluated during the reaction. All antioxidants showed significantly lower viscosity, TPM, and p-AV, and higher LA/PA, than the control (without antioxidant, CON), indicating that thermal oxidation was delayed. Among them, CAPE showed significantly lower viscosity, TPM, and p-AV, and higher LA/PA, than the other antioxidants (p < 0.05). In the correlation between the oxidation parameters measured from CON and CAPE, the correlation coefficient between p-AV and viscosity was rather low at r = 0.7603 (in CON) and r = 0.7338 (in CAPE), respectively.
North East India is a home of tremendous and versatile vegetative oil bearing materials because of the subtropical climatic conditions. Screening, characterization, and domestication of high yielding treeborne oilseeds rich in oleic acid and tocopherol are highly demandable from industrial aspects. As very few studies have been carried out in this regard from this region, our investigation aims to exploit new sources of tree-borne oilseeds rich in omega fatty acids for edible and non-edible purposes from both known and unknown plants. Six lesser-known tree-borne oilseeds were characterized based on oil content, tocopherol composition and metal content. The fatty oil was found more in Dysoxylum procerum (50%). The dominating fatty acid was oleic acid ranged between 38.4 to 64%. The oil of Terminalia bellirica showed high content of tocopherol (0.05%). Among eleven metals (Ca, Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cd, As, Na, K) in all the six fatty oil contents, Pb and Cu showed high concentrations as compared to the codex standard while Fe values of all the oil contents were below the permissible concentrations.
A new difunctional Zn(II) coordination polymer (CP) with the chemical formula of [Zn(TBTA) (L)1.5]n (1) has been synthesized hydrothermally from tetrabromoterephthalic acid (H2TBTA) and 4,4′-bis(imidazole-1-yl)-biphenyl (L) ligands. Furthermore, due to its strong intense emission and open N donor sites, complex 1 could be used as a light-emitting sensor to determine 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) which has high selectivity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the anti-bacterial effect of the compound against P. gingivalis in vitro was evaluated by measuring the P. gingivalis growth curves after compound treatment. And the RT-PCR assay was performed to detect the relative expression of ragA and ragB, which are important for the P. gingivalis growth. The potential anti-infectious mechanism was further studied by using molecular docking technique.
Curcumin is a bioactive compound with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but has low water solubility and dermal absorption. The inflammatory process is considered as the biological response to damage induced by various stimuli. If this process fails to self-regulate, it becomes a potential risk of cancer. The objective of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin administered to mice with induced atrial edema using two topical vehicles: organogels and O/W-type nanogels at pH 7, Organogels and O/W-type nanogels at pH 7 were prepared, characterized and the anti-inflammatory activity was assessed. A histopathological analysis of mouse ears was performed and two gel formulations were selected. Thermograms of organogels indicated that increasing the gelling agent improved the stability of the system. Deformation sweeps confirmed a viscoelastic behavior characteristic of gels in both systems. During the anti-inflammatory activity evaluations, the nanogels demonstrated greater activity (61.8 %) than organogels; Diclofenac® (2-(2,6-dichloranilino) phenylacetic acid), used as a control medication achieved the highest inhibition (85.4%); however, the drug produced the death of 2 (40%) of the study subjects caused by secondary adverse events. Histopathological analysis confirmed the data.
Bullfrog oil (BFO) is a natural product from the adipose tissue of the amphibian Rana catesbeiana Shaw, a bio-product rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which claims anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of BFO using in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus, the in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. Additionally, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was performed by the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in Wistar rats, followed by histological analysis. Moreover, the BFO effect on inflammatory pathways was investigated by in vitro evaluation of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and type-6 interleukin (IL-6) and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF) levels. In vivo experiments showed that BFO administered by intragastric route produced a significant anti-inflammatory effect, which was as substantial as indomethacin, the positive control. Histopathological analysis confirmed these results, showing the absence of the edema and minimal signs of inflammation in the paws of rats treated with BFO. The MTT results showed that BFO at all tested concentrations had no toxic effect against a macrophage cell line, not affecting the cell viability. In addition, after 48 hours of treatment, the BFO itself and its blend with Cetiol®-V (1:1v/v) at 200 µg.mL–1 were able to reduce the NO synthesis, and the IL-6 and TNF levels up to 35 ± 2%, 40 ± 6%, and 12 ± 3%, respectively. Therefore, these results provide unprecedented scientific evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of BFO, suggesting its potential as a new candidate for the development of pharmaceutical products with anti-inflammatory activity.
Prevention of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is an important consideration for reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. While blueberry fruits have been reported to ameliorate lipid metabolism in humans, there are only few research reports on the effects of blueberry leaves (BL). Here, we investigated the efficacy of BL on postprandial hyperlipidemia in subjects with high fasting triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. Randomized, double-blind, cross-over design study was conducted. The subjects consumed a BL containing beverage or a placebo beverage before a fat-enriched test meal. Blood samples were collected prior to and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after consuming the test beverage. The postprandial serum TG and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) concentrations were significantly lower in the BL beverage compared with those in the placebo beverage. Additionally, BL was more effective in subjects with high fasting ghrelin with gastric emptying function. In current study, fasting ghrelin correlated with the increase in postprandial serum TG, suggesting that BL ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia through delayed gastric emptying. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that BL may be useful as an early dietary therapy for treating postprandial hyperlipidemia.
The chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils from the leaves and rhizomes of Zingiber collinsii Mood & Theilade (Zingiberaceae) were reported. The main compounds in the leaf oil were α-pinene (25.6%), β-caryophyllene (16.8%), β-pinene (16.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.9%) while the rhizome oil consist mainly of camphene (22.5%), β-pinene (16.3%), α-pinene (9.0%) and humulene oxide II (9.0%). The rhizome oil demonstrated larvicidal effects towards fourth instant larvae of mosquito vectors. The highest mortality (100%) was observed at 24 h exposure against Aedes albopictus (concentration 100 μg/mL) and 48 h (concentration of 50 and 100 μg/mL), while the highest mortality (100%) was observed for Culex quinquefasciatus at 24 h and 48 h at concentration of 100 μg/mL. The 24 h mosquito larvicidal activity of the rhizome oil against Ae. albopictus were LC50 = 25.51 μg/mL; LC90 = 40.22 μg/mL and towards Cx. quinquefasciatus with LC50 = 50.11 μg/mL and LC90 = 71.53 μg/mL). However, the 48 h larvicidal activity were LC50 = 20.03 μg/mL and LC90 = 24.51 μg/mL (Ae. albopictus), as well as LC50 = 36.18 μg/mL and LC90 = 55.11 μg/mL (Cx. quinquefasciatus). On the other hand, no appreciable mortality and larvicidal activity was observed for the leaf oil. The larvicidal activity of the essential oils of Z. collinsii was being reported for the first time.
Activity changes after olive oil (OO), pomegranate seed oil (PSO), and grape seed oil (GSO) were formulated into self-nanoemulsifying systems (SNES), were examined in this study. Only GSO SNES dramatically enhanced antioxidant activity of GSO. SNES from OO and PSO did not exert obvious impact on radical quenching ability of the oils. Though PSO exhibited significantly stronger strength over OO in suppressing E. coli (p < 0.05), the inhibitory effect of OO SNES against E. coli became slightly higher than that of PSO SNES. Similar phenomenon happened in GSO, OO, and their SNES for preventing Yeast growth. The study indicated that SNES sometimes reversed the strength order of the original oils in inhibiting bacteria.