Platelet hyper-aggregation is a serious manifestation of type 2 diabetes and a precipitating factor in the most frequent cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes-myocardial infarction. Consumption of flaxseed oil as a dietary supplement containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) through its metabolism to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and subsequent production of antiaggregatory eicosanoids may reduce such aggregation in vivo. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp (a)) may also influence platelet aggregation in vivo. Furthermore, serum Lp(a) concentrations are increased and bleeding time is decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes, presenting an enhanced risk of myocardial infarction. It was hypothesized that Lp(a) and bleeding time would be correlated due to the considerable molecular homology between apolipoprotein(a) and plasminogen, which should decrease bleeding time. Bleeding time is an excellent measure of in vivo platelet aggregability. The purpose of this study was to determine, if as the result of flaxseed oil consumption, Lp(a) influences the mechanism of any change in bleeding time. A secondary purpose was to determine if gender differences exist in the response of bleeding time to Lp(a) in flaxseed oil consumers. Subjects (n = 40) were randomized to treatment with flaxseed oil (n = 20) or a safflower oil placebo (n = 20). Each of groups contained equal numbers of males (n = 10) and females (n= 10). Some subjects dropped from the study due to reasons not related to treatment side effects. Subjects came for three visits, each three months apart. On each visit, age, gender, and BMI were recorded, bleeding time was performed, and serum Lp(a) concentrations were determined. At the completion of visit 2, subjects were randomized to 1 g of oil per 10 kg body weight each day for three months. Compared with pretreatment measurements, there was a statistically significant increase in bleeding time in the flaxseed oil group among both males and females posttreatment. In contrast, there was no change in the safflower group regardless of gender. Males had a statistically shorter bleeding time pretreatment while males and females showed no difference posttreatment with flaxseed oil consumption. Pretreatment values for Lp(a) and bleeding time showed a nonsignificant correlation among males and a statistically significant correlation among females. A statistically significant correlation also held when all males and females in the study were combined though at a lower value than in females. Significant correlations were lost and/or maintained upon administration of flaxseed oil and safflower oil, respectively. It is also concluded that serum Lp(a) concentrations remain unchanged following flaxseed oil consumption; thus, at least in part diminishing the correlation of Lp(a) with bleeding time. These findings suggest that other factors such as EPA derived eicosanoids mediate the prolonged bleeding time in flaxseed oil consumers.
Anti-oxidative activity in South African herbal tea, Rooibos (red bush in English, Asparathus linearis) tea extract (RTE) and grape seed extracts (Procidyn:Pro and Gravinol:Gra) was evaluated based on that in mixed tocopherol (Toc), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and propyl gallate (PG). Polyphenol content in RTE, Pro, and Gra was determined to be 17, 90, and 49%, respectively in term of EGCG. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability of RTE, Pro, Gra, EGCG, PG, and Toc given as 3.29, 6.58, 2.86, 9.98, 4.26, and 1.00 per unit polyphenol content, respectively. Anti-oxidative ability in RTE, Pro, Gra, EGCG, PG, and Toc was determined by adding different amounts as 500ppm polyphenol to be present in the substrate of methyl linoleate in the non-aqueous and O/W emulsifying systems. Anti-oxidative activity was found to follow the order, Control<Toc<RTE<Pro<Gra<<EGCG=PG in the non-aqueous system and EGCG<Control<Gra=Pro<Toc<PG<RTE in the emulsifying system. Intensity of synergistic effects of ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) for RTE followed the order, Control<RTE=RTE+AA=RTE+CA<<RTE+PE in the two systms. Main component present in RTE was indicated by TLC and IR to be rutin.
Sucrose, D-glucose and D-maltose were examined for their effects on the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (MOPS) and the D phase emulsification of triglyceride by MOPS. With rise in concentration, each was found to decrease HLB of MOPS with reduction in MOPS cloud point. In the phase diagram of the MOPS/aqueous solution/triglyceride three component system, the D phase region was noted to expand with sucrose addition. Regardless of the sugar, an O/D emulsion gel formed at high triglyceride content on adding oil to a 40 wt% aqueous sugar and MOPS mixture. Mean O/W emulsion droplet size subsequent to O/D emulsion gel dilution was ca.1 μm while with agent-in-oil emulsification, ca. 10 μm. Droplet distribution of the emulsion prepared by agent-in-oil emulsification was broad and that of the emulsion produced by D phase emulsification, narrow. It thus may be concluded that the addition of sugars as the 4th ingredient to a MOPS/water/triglyceride system is a promising means for D phase emulsification in the industry.
Green tea catechins (TC) have anti-obesity effects on atherosclerosis-susceptible mice fed atherogenic diet, but the antioxidant effect of the catechins at these conditions is not studied. Our aim is to show that green tea catechins have a favorable effect on plasma and organs lipid peroxidation parameters. For the purpose we have fed atherosclerosis-susceptible mice HF (30 %) diet containing TC (0.5 %). We have measured body weight, food intake, ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), total cholesterol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma, and lipid hydroperoxides concentrations in liver and small intestine, and compared them with these in control group fed HF diet. Also we have measured ECG and EGCG concentrations in plasma, liver, and small intestine of the mice fed TC. Our results show that green tea catechins′ feeding reduces the body weight without affecting the food intake. TC group FRAP values are significantly different from these in the control group at all investigated periods. α-Tocopherol plasma concentrations in TC group have greater values than these in the control group. TC group liver and small intestine lipid hydroperoxides concentrations are lower than these in HF group. In conclusion, our results show that green tea catechins′ feeding leads to catechins accumulation in plasma, liver, and small intestine which causes anti-lipid peroxidation effects in atherosclerosis-susceptible mice.
A liquid unsaturated fatty alcohol containing only slight amount of conjugated diene impurities was obtained by the selective hydrogenation of industrial oleyl alcohol originally taken from palm kernel oil through use of a copper-chromium-mangane oxide catalyst, followed by fractional distillation and steam distillation. The liquid unsaturated alcohol thus obtained was improved with respect to restraint of odor and color impairment, these problems possibly arising from degradation. Also the cloud point was kept low.
IR and 27Al NMR spectra of 1,1’-bis(ω-carboxyalkanoyl)ferrocenes in the presence of metal ions indicated complexation of 1,1’-bis(3-carboxypropanoyl)ferrocene and 1,1’-bis(5-carboxypentanoyl)ferrocene with aluminium ion.