The chemical compositions of volatile components from Magnolia biondii Pamp were determined by steam distillation (SD) and headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Fifty-six compounds were identified and the major volatile components were d-camphor (0.18-43.26%), 1,8-cineol (13.23-38.02%), α-terpineol (6.57-12.29%) and α-cadinene (5.53-15.15%). The comparison of the volatile components from M. biondii Pamp harvested in three regions of China was investigated. Also, the comparison of volatile components by SD and HS-SPME methods in term of isolation time, plant-consuming and chemical compositions was discussed as well. The percentages of the volatile components by HS-SPME method were found to be large difference from the corresponding one by SD method. HS-SPME technique was much faster than SD (60 min (HS-SPME)/420 min (SD)). Although the aromatic profiles between HS-SPME and SD methods showed several quantitative differences, HS-SPME may be applied routinely to analyze aromatic and medicinal plants.
Disruption of the skin barrier function caused by epidermal hyper-proliferation, results in the skin becoming dry and showing high transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is reportedly efficacious for treating TEWL and epidermal hyper-proliferation. In this study, to elucidate the effect of GLA-rich oil on skin function, GLA-containing food was given to adults with dry skin or mild atopic dermatitis and skin parameters were evaluated. In the results, we recognized beneficial effects on the TEWL index. The efficacy of GLA was also demonstrated to be statistically significant especially in subjects with pro-inflammatory features. The results suggest that the mechanism of improvement of skin barrier has been associated with possible generation of anti-inflammatory metabolites from GLA. The clinical physician also confirmed that none of the subjects showed any noteworthy side effects. GLA-enriched food appears to be safe and to improve skin barrier function in subjects with dry skin conditions and mild atopic dermatitis.
Estrogens (estron: E1; estradiol: E2; estriol: E3) are major water pollutants. For the removal of estrogens, activated carbon (AC) and ozone treatments were employed, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and pH of a single solution and multiple solution systems were investigated. The removal of estrogens increased with the amount of AC. The percentage of removed estrogens by AC in the single solution system was greater than that in the ternary solution system. The estrogens were completely removed using ozone, which also reduced COD and pH. The removal of estrogens increased the water quality and decreased the amount of organic carbon.
Petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems. Therefore petroleum needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources; the use of oleochemicals as biobased lubricants is of significant interest. This article presents a series of chemical modification on oleic acid to yield synthetic biolubricant basestocks. Measuring of density, volatility, cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), onset temperature (OT) and signal maximum temperature (SMT) was carried out for each compound. Furthermore, the friction and wear properties were measured using high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The results showed that octadecyl 9-octadecyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the most favorable low-temperature performance (CP %ndash;26°C, PP %ndash;28°C) and the lowest ball wear scan diameter (42 μm) while propyl 9-propyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the higher oxidation stability (OT 156°C).
Carbonaceous material for the removal of fluoride ions from water was prepared from coffee grounds (CGs) by calcination and subsequent HCl treatment. The characteristics of the CGs, including the surface area, mean pore diameter, pore volume, and surface functional groups were determined, and the morphological characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption isotherms, saturated amount of fluoride ions adsorbed, and the effect of contact time and temperature on the adsorption of fluoride ions were investigated for a sample of tap water. The specific surface area of CG calcined at 600° (CG600) was larger than that of CGs calcined at 400, 800, and 1000°. Phenolic, lactonic, and carboxyl groups were detected on the CG600 surface. The adsorption capacity of the carbonized CGs for fluoride was ranked in the order CG400 < CG1000 < CG800 < CG600 (where the numeral indicates the carbonization temperature), whereas virgin CG and CG600-NAT (not treated with hydrochloric acid solution) did not exhibit any adsorption ability for fluoride ions. The amount of fluoride ions adsorbed onto CG600 increased with increasing temperature and was consistent with chemical adsorption. The mechanism of adsorption of fluoride ions onto CG600 proceeded via ion exchange with chloride ions (1:1) present on the surface of CG600. The adsorption isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Moreover, CG600 showed an acceptable adsorption capacity for fluoride ions present in tap water.
Optimal preparation of inkjet ink should be possible through the elucidation of the relationship between dye/additive interactions and ink performance. In the present study, the interactions between the dyes and surfactant additives were investigated. To investigate the physical properties of the surfactants used, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the aggregation number (N) were determined using electron spin resonance, static light-scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. On the basis of the cmc and N values, the visible absorption spectra of aqueous acid dye solutions (C. I. Acid Red 88, 13, and 27) containing surfactants (i.e., Surfynol 465 (S465), octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (OGDE), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) were measured. From the dependence of the spectra on the surfactant concentration, the binding constants, Kbind, of the acid dyes with the surfactant micelles were calculated: the Kbind values decreased in the order of C. I. Acid Red 88 > C. I. Acid Red 13 > C. I. Acid Red 27, which correlates with the number of sulfonate groups. For all the dyes, the Kbind values with the nonionic surfactants, S465 and OGDE, were much larger than those with the anionic surfactant, SDS. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding, i.e., the enthalpy change, ΔHbind, and entropy change, ΔSbind, were determined via the temperature dependence of the binding constants. The positive ΔHbind value for S465 indicates an endothermic binding process, while the negative ΔHbind values for SDS and OGDE indicate exothermic binding processes.
We prepared a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-ClO4–-supported TiO2 thin-film electrode as a counter electrode on a transparent conductive oxide glass electrode for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using a combination of sol-gel and electropolymerization methods. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics indicate that DSSCs with PEDOT-ClO4–/TiO2 thin-film counter electrodes had a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency similar to that of PEDOT-ClO4–/TiO2 particle composite-film electrodes. Furthermore, it was found that the photocurrent was increased by attaching a reflector to the opposite side of the transparent counter electrode.
A stratum corneum intercellular lipid model was prepared in a quasi-non-aqueous system. It was found that the detection of the superoxide anion radical (O2–•) generated in the lipid model by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was possible using an electrochemical O2–• sensor. The use of an electron spin resonance–spin trap method confirmed that the reactive oxygen species generated in the lipid model by UV irradiation was O2–•; the presence of a hydroxyl radical (•OH) was also proven. In addition, a reduction in the electric current in the O2–• sensor was observed in lipid models containing added antioxidants such as d-α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Moreover, there was a correlation between the degree of oxidative degradation of the lipid, which was determined by the thiobarbituric acid method, and the electric current due to the O2–• detected using the O2–• sensor.