Health related concerns for dietary ‘trans-fat’ in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These ‘new’ high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward ensuring global food security for high-oleic vegetable oils.
Diacylglycerol (DAG) oil is becoming quite well known for its beneficial effects on obesity and weight related disorders as they are digested and metabolized in a different way, which significantly reduces body weight. The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and DAG-rich rice bran oil on rat model. DAG-rich RBO (46.10% DAG) was prepared in the laboratory by enzymatic (TLIM) glycerolysis process. For the feeding experiment, rats (average body weight 130 g) were divided into two groups, each consisting of eight rats. Group RBO was taken as control while DAG-rich RBO (Group DGR) was taken as experimental. Food efficiency ratio, lipid profile of plasma, liver, mesentery and erythrocyte membrane (EM) lipid profile, plasma leptin content, HMG-CoA reductase activity were measured using standard procedures. The results indicated that DAG-rich rice bran oil significantly decreased body weight of rats and content of total cholesterol and triglyceride in plasma compared to the control RBO. The long term use of DAG-rich rice bran oil might be useful for prevention of obesity and incidence of hypercholesterolemia.
In present study, fermentative production of Sophorolipids (SLs) by Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 that have antibacterial activities was optimized. The media components like glucose, yeast extract and urea were critical components in the microbial growth and formation of SL moiety. The secondary carbon; oleic acid supports the formation of SLs. These components were optimized for maximum production of total SLs which have potential application. Optimization by one factor at-a-time method, glucose and yeast extract were found to be best sources for maximum production of SLs (g/L), 20.94 and 32.1 resp. Oleic acid (100 g/L) gave maximum production of 54.16 g/L with 54 % conversion of added oleic acid in fermentation media indicating fed batch operation is best for SLs production. Total sophorolipids formed were purified and 98.1% lactonic form was obtained by crystallization. Characterization of lactonic SLs by FT-IR, NMR and attached fatty acid moiety was confirmed by GCMS.
Organic reagent, 4-(6-Bromo-2-Benzothiazolylazo) pyrogallol (4-Br-BTAP), was synthesized by coupling reaction of diazotized 2-amino-6-bromobenzothiazole with pyrogallol and purified using ethanol recrystallization method. Analysis and characterization of synthesized product were carried out using melting point, elementary analysis, IR and H1-NMR. Dissociation constants of the organic reagent were calculated by spectrophotometric method. Absorption spectra of the 4-Br-BTAP in solvents of different polarities were investigated. Analytical application of 4-Br-BTAP was established with Cu (II) and Pd (II).
The reaction of esters with nitriles, using iodine as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions, was investigated. For example, 1-phenylethyl acetate reacted with benzonitrile in the presence of iodine to afford the amide, N-(1-phenylethyl)benzamide. Addition of water was effective in promoting amidation. The most suitable conditions were investigated, and determined as follows: temperature = 80°C, molar ratio of nitrile:alcohol:iodine:water = 1:3:0.2:1.0, and reaction time = 18 h. The amidation reactivity depended on the stability of the cationic intermediate formed from the ester. Only the reaction of 2-phenylpropan-2-yl acetate with benzonitrile gave no amide compound; rather, the cyclic compound, 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene was obtained in 90% yield. The reaction of (-)-bornyl acetate with benzonitrile produced the racemic amide compound, (±)-exo-N-isobornylbenzamide, in 82% yield.
Structures of (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-ketotorulene (1) and (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-keto-γ-carotene (2) isolated from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhrous were fully characterized by FAB MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Both 1 and 2 showed potent singlet oxygen (1O2) quenching activity as that of astaxanthin and lycopene, which were well known strong 1O2 quencher.
Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.