The profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from Glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with different fibers, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), CarboxenTM/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and Divinylbenzene/CarboxenTM/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), was investigated. C4-C6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of VOCs isolated by CAR/PDMS fiber. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of VOCs isolated by PDMS fiber. During the growth phase, Ochracin was produced in the large majority of VOCs. 3-Methylbutanol and phenylethyl alcohol were found in the log phase of it. Alcohols were found in cultures of higher age, while sesquiterpenes were found to be characteristic of initial growth stage of G. cingulata.
The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection.
Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.
Solid fat from fractionation of palm-based products was converted into cake shortening at different processing conditions. High oleic palm stearin with an oleic content of 48.2 % was obtained from fractionation of high oleic palm oil which was produced locally. Palm product was blended with different soft oils at pre-determined ratio and further fractionated to obtain the solid fractions. These fractions were then converted into cake shortenings named as high oleic, N1 and N2 blends. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental shortenings were compared with those of control shortenings in terms of fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic forms. Unlike the imported commercial shortenings as reported by other studies and the control, experimental shortenings were trans-free. The SMP and SFC of experimental samples, except for the N2 sample, fell within the ranges of commercial and control shortenings. The IV was higher than those of domestic shortenings but lower when compared to imported and control shortenings. They were also observed to be β tending even though a mixture of β and β′ was observed in the samples after 3 months of storage. The shortenings were also used in the making of pound cake and sensory evaluation showed the good performance of high oleic sample as compared to the other shortenings.
Liposomes were prepared by the supercritical reverse phase evaporation method developed in our laboratory using various phospholipids with different hydrocarbon chains. The effects of the length of alkyl chain and number of unsaturated bonds of phospholipids on the properties of liposomal membranes were examined through trapping efficiency measurements, transmission electron microscopic observations, and osmotic response measurements. The trapping efficiency for water-soluble drugs of liposomes prepared by our method was greatly higher than that of liposomes prepared by the conventional Bangham method. Liposomes prepared using unsaturated phospholipids showed a high trapping efficiency compared with those prepared using saturated phospholipids. In addition, the trapping efficiency of liposomes prepared using 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), a complex phospholipid with both saturated and unsaturated alkyl groups, had a value intermediate between L-α-dipalmitoyl-phosphtidylcholine (DPPC), a saturated phospholipid, and L-α-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), an unsaturated phospholipid. That is, the trapping efficiency of liposomes was dependent on the number of unsaturated bonds rather than the alkyl chain length of phospholipid molecule and it increased with increasing bulkiness of the molecule. The osmotic response was higher for liposomes prepared using unsaturated phospholipids than for those formed by saturated phospholipids.
In this study, the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrodistilled essential oil from Farfugium japonicum were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and included 1-undecene (22.43%), 1-nonene (19.83%), β-caryophyllene (12.26%), α-copaene (3.70%), γ-curcumene (2.86%), germacrene D (2.69%), and 1-decene (2.08%). The effects of the essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the F. japonicum essential oil is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of the F. japonicum essential oil were accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. In order to determine whether F. japonicum essential oil can safely be applied to human skin, the cytotoxic effects of F. japonicum essential oil were determined by colorimetric MTT assays in human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte HaCaT cells. F. japonicum essential oil exhibited low cytotoxicity at 100 μg/mL. Based on these results, we suggest that F. japonicum essential oil may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate for topical application.
Hexagonal-structured self-assemblies of nanocrystalline (anatase) titania templated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16H33N(CH3)3Br; CTAB) (Hex-ncTiO2/CTAB Nanoskeleton) were formed after mixing of aqueous solutions containing CTAB spherical micelles and titanium oxysulfate acid hydrate (TiOSO4·xH2SO4·xH2O) as a titania precursor in the absence of any other additives. Formation mechanism of the Hex-ncTiO2/CTAB Nanoskeleton was examined in terms of the reaction temperature, titania precursor/CTAB mixing ratio, surfactant type, electrostatic interaction, micelle formation and molecular component. We found that crystal growth of crystalline (anatase) titania (polymorphic crystallization) was promoted with higher temperature and lower titania precursor content in aqueous solutions. In addition, we revealed that the crystalline (anatase) titania was formed in polycation, poly(allylamine hydrochloride ([CH2CH(CH2NH2)HCl]n; PAH), and formamide (HCONH2) solutions. On the other hand, no titania formation was observed in anionic systems such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na; SDS) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate ([C8H7SO3Na]n; PSSS). This indicates that hydrolysis reaction of the titania precursor is initiated by not only cations but also nitrogen atoms in molecules and polymers. Hexagonally structure was formed in only cationic surfactant micellar solutions but not in polycation solutions and formamide.