The aim of this study was to discriminate the authenticity of perilla oils distributed in Korea using their Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra with attenuated total reflectance accessory. By using orthogonal projections for latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) technique, the =C–H cis-double bond, –C–H asymmetric and –C–H symmetric stretching are determined to be the best variables for discriminating the perilla oil authenticity. Comparing the integral and the second derivative methods between authentic and adulterated perilla oil samples, the most obvious and significant differences among the three variables is =C–H cis-double bond stretching. The procedure for applying the second derivative range of variables found in authentic perilla oil samples correctly discriminated between the adulterated samples of perilla oils with soybean oils and/or corn oils added at concentrations of ≥ 5 vol%. These results showed that the second derivative FT-IR analysis can be used as a simple and alternative method for discriminating the authenticity of perilla oil.
Coconut oil rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids was enzymatically modified at the sn-2 position with polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil by trans-esterification reaction. The modified coconut oil was combined with gelators (γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol) to prepare organogels. The effects of different modified coconut oil contents and γ-oryzanol:β-sitosterol ratios on thermodynamic and rheological properties, and microstructures of organogels, as well as their relationships, were studied. The results showed that the addition of gelators increased the hardness, solid fat content, and oil binding capacity of organogels. In addition to its highest melting point and enthalpy change, the organogel containing γ-oryzanol:β-sitosterol (6:4) had the best texture properties that closely resemble the crystalline structure properties. Moreover, the developed organogels had the properties of a pseudoplastic fluid, as described by the power law equation. Gʹ of organogel was found to be significantly higher than Gʹʹ, which indicates that the organogel remains in solid state. The analysis of crystal morphology showed that the crystal of organogels were clusters, consisting of dense three-dimensional network of gel.
The effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment (40 to 200MPa) on the structure, interfacial properties and oxidative stability of soy protein isolate emulsions were investigated. After HPH process, emulsifying activity (EAI) and emulsion stability (ESI) could be improved by 114% and 125%, percentage of protein adsorbed to oil-in-water emulsions significantly improved when the pressure was not more than 160 MPa. SDS-PAGE showed that the HPH caused more low molecular mass subunits as the samples were treated below 160 MPa. FTIR traced the changes of four conformations in the secondary structure. Within a suitable pressure range, the apparent viscosity increased with the increasing of pressure, which reflected shear thinning; rheological measurement of emulsions showed G’>G’’, G’ and G’’ both increased significantly with frequency increasing; emulsions treated by HPH had better oxidative stability. This paper suggested the HPH was a useful method for preparation the highly viscous and stable emulsions.
This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), in vitro and in vivo, against the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens). The EO composition of M. piperita L. was investigated by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 26 identified volatile constituents. The major constituents were menthol (33.59%) and iso-menthone (33.00%). This EO exerted a bactericidal activity against multiple strains of Agrobacterium species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. In planta experiments, M. piperita EO, tested at concentration of 200 mg/mL, completely inhibited the formation of tumors on tomato plants inoculated with pathogenic strain A. tumefaciens ATCC 23308T. These results suggest that M. piperita EO could be used to control plant bacterial disease caused by A. tumefaciens.
Starfish Asterias amurensis produces sphingoid bases d18:3, 9-methyl-d18:3 (9Me-d18:3), and d22:2, which possess unique structural features. In this study, sphingoid bases prepared from A. amurensis glucosylceramides displayed unexpected elution behaviors from a general octadecyl silyl high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. For separation and isolation, sphingoid bases were fractionated by octadecyl silyl HPLC after N-acetylation, yielding d18:3, 9Me-d18:3, and two d22:2 isomers. To compare the biological activities of individual sphingoid bases, their effects on sphingolipid production in normal human keratinocytes were evaluated. Treatment with sphingoid bases increased the content of ceramides, glucosylceramides, and sphingomyelins in keratinocytes. Moreover, ceramides, which contain saturated ultra-long-chain fatty acids (C30–34), were significantly increased by treatment with d18:3, but not with other A. amurensis sphingoid bases. The mRNA level of the early differentiation marker keratin 10 was markedly decreased and sphingolipid synthesis-related genes were slightly increased in keratinocytes exposed to A. amurensis-derived d18:3, 9Me-d18:3, and d22:2 isomers. These results suggest that A. amurensis-derived sphingoid bases induce differentiation to varying degrees, sphingolipid production depends on their chemical structures, and d18:3 is the most promising functional sphingoid base.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the variability in elemental composition of seven medicinal plants and their respective soils belonging to protected and nearby unprotected sites of the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park. The medical plants under study were Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Peganum harmala Linn, Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth, Seriphidium quettense (Podlech.) Ling, Hertia intermedia (Bioss) O. Ktze, and Nepeta praetervisa Rech. F. Macro (C, H, N, S, K, Ca), micro (Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn), beneficial (Al, Co, Na), others (As, Br, Cr, Cs, Hf, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Sn, V and Th) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb) were characterized by means of standard organic elemental and instrumental neutron activation methodologies and by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results showed that, among macro nutrients, carbon concentration was the highest element in both plant and soil samples followed by H and K. Elements such as Cl, Na and Fe were detected in considerably good amounts; all the other elements were found in trace quantities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify spatial variation in elemental composition of medicinal plants, in which 80-90% of the total variance in whole set of data was found. In particular, the findings highlighted the presence of essential and beneficial elements such as C, H, N, K, Ca, Fe, Mn and Na, in samples from protected sites, while potentially dangerous elements such as Al, As, Br and Cr were detected in samples from unprotected sites. These results emphasized on the need for rational exploitation of valuable medicinal plants and supporting protected areas as an excellent source of biodiversity conservation.
Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a major sphingolipid in plants and fungi, is known to have food functions such as preventing intestinal impairment and enhancing the moisture content of skin. However, there is little information about functions of GlcCer in food sources as most of the studies on GlcCer functions are done using purified GlcCer. This study was performed to investigate the effects of GlcCer contained in food on intestinal impairment; polished rice flour (RF) and this ethanol extract (RE) were used as sources of GlcCer, and these were evaluated by studying the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated mice, which is a model of colon cancer. Mice were fed with either a control diet, a RF diet where RF replaces cornstarch (150 g/kg), or a plus RE diet (0.5 g/kg; RE was extracted from the same amount of RF present in the RF diet). The amount of GlcCer was similar in both the RF and RE diets (3.0 and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively). DMH treatment induced the formation of ACF and the production of inflammation-related cytokines. Both dietary RF and RE suppressed ACF formation and RE, in particular, showed a significant suppressive effect. Dietary RE inhibited the production of almost all of the inflammation-related cytokines studied, while RF suppressed only a few of these cytokines. The present study suggests that the lipophilic fraction including GlcCer, present in polished rice has protective effects against intestinal impairment, but it requires extraction since digestion alone is not enough to elicit its complete protective action.
Blueberry leaf is currently a popular dietary supplement. Effects of dietary blueberry leaf and its active components on body fat accumulation were examined. C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat, high-sucrose diet with or without 3% blueberry leaf extract (BLEx) or 3% concentrated-polyphenolic BLEx (CP BLEx) for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet without blueberry leaf, BLEx and CP BLEx significantly reduced body weight and adipose tissue weight gain. Adipocytes were also smaller and and liver lipid accumulatioin was significantly inhibited in mice fed either BLEx or CP BLEx. These effects tended to be more pronounced in mice fed CP BLEx compared to in mice fed BLEx. Together, results suggest that blueberry leaf inhibits body fat accumulation typically observed in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and that inhibition is attributable to polyphenolic components in leaf extracts.
Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs) are naturally occurring fatty acids that are believed to have anticancer properties. In this study, we examined various plant seeds from herbs to discover seed oils containing CLNs. The ultraviolet spectra of total lipids from these seeds were measured. An absorption maximum around 270 nm was observed in seed oils belonging to the Valerianaceae family (Centranthus ruber and Valeriana officinalis). When the fatty acid compositions of these seed oils were measured, CLNs were detected. By silica column chromatography, neutral lipids (NLs), glycolipids, and phospholipids were eluted from seed oils of C. ruber and V. officinalis. Then, fatty acid compositions of these fractions were measured. This revealed that most of the CLNs in these seed oils existed in the NL fraction. When the NL fractions of these seed oils were reacted with lipase, CLNs showed good sensitivity to lipase hydrolysis. This suggested that the CLNs in the seed oils of C. ruber and V. officinalis existed predominantly at the sn-1,3 position of triacylglycerol and less at the sn-2 position. These results suggested that the CLNs from the seed oils of C. ruber and V. officinalis could easily be taken up by cancer cells as free fatty acids and had good potential as antitumor substances.
A novel glycolipid featuring a glucosylglycerate moiety as a polar head group was synthesized in two steps from sucrose, glycerate, and N-dodecylamine. Glucosylglyceric acid was formed from sucrose and glyceric acid using sucrose synthase as a catalyst, followed by condensation with N-dodecylamine using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) as a condensing agent. A white solid compound was recovered with a yield of 21% after purification by hydrophobic column chromatography. The structure and purity of the isolated compound, identified as N-dodecyl glucosylglyceric acid amide (aGGA), were confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. aGGA was soluble in several polar solvents, including acetone, dimethyl formamide, and short chain alcohols. The dissolution of aGGA in water reduced the surface tension to 27.8 mN m−1 at a critical micellar concentration of 1.57 × 10−4 M. In addition, the presence of aGGA at concentrations as low at 0.68 mM protected egg white from heat-induced denaturation. These results suggest that aGGA could be useful as a protein-protecting surfactant.