To enhance the curcumin delivery in a variety of food grade matrices namely spray dried ethanolic curcumin in fresh skim milk (Spray dried Cu-SM), a fresh mixture of ethanolic curcumin and skim milk (Fresh Cu-SM) a powder mixture of curcumin and skim milk powder (Powder Cu-SMP) and oil in water emulsion (Emulsion) were studied. The cellular uptake of curcumin from the respective matrices was studied on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Spray dried Cu-SM showed higher encapsulation efficiency compared to a corresponding Powder Cu-SMP and an oil-in-water emulsion (40% oil) bearing curcumin. Furthermore, ethanolic administration of curcumin in spray dried form enhanced the cellular uptake of curcumin considerably higher than non-ethanolic samples (approx. 4 times). Overall, milk protein based vectors were found to perform better than emulsion samples. These findings highlighted the fact that curcumin uptake may be tailored by fine tuning of curcumin delivery vehicles which highlights possible application of powders as functional foods.
Also recognized as carbohydrate liquid crystals, glycolipids are amphiphiles whose basic unit comprises of a sugar group attached to an alkyl chain. Glycolipids are amphitropic, which means these materials form liquid crystal self-assemblies when dry (thermotropic) as well as when dissolved in solvents (lyotropic/surfactants) such as water. Many glycolipids are also naturally derived since these can be found in cell membranes. Their membrane and surfactant functions are largely understood through their lyotropic properties. While glycolipids are expected to play major roles as eco-friendly surfactants in the global surfactant market, their usefulness as thermotropic liquid crystal material is, to date, unknown, due to relatively lack of research performed and data reported in the literature. Understandably since glycolipids are hygroscopic with many hydroxy groups, removing the last trace water is very challenging. In recent time, with careful lyophilization and more consistent characterization technique, some researchers have attempted serious studies into “dry” or anhydrous glycolipids. Motivated by possible developments of novel thermotropic applications, some results from these studies also provide surprising new understanding to support conventional wisdom of the lyotropic systems. Here we review the dry state of glycosides, a family of glycolipids whose sugar headgroup is linked to the lipid chain via a glycosidic oxygen linker. The structure property relationship of both linear and anhydrous Guerbet glycosides will be examined. In particular, how the variation of sugar stereochemistry (e.g. anomer vs. epimer), the chain length and chain branching affect the formation of thermotropic liquid crystals phases, which not only located under equilibrium but also far from equilibrium conditions (glassy phase) are scrutinized. The dry glycolipid assembly has been subjected to electric and magnetic fields and the results show interesting behaviors including a possible transient current generation.
Rice bran contains a great amount of functional lipids and phytochemicals including γ-oryzanols, tocotrienols, and tocopherols. However, utilization of those compounds is limited and needs some proven guidelines for better implementation. We introduce some effective strategies for the utilization of rice functional lipids, including an introduction of pigmented rice varieties for better bioactive compounds, biofortification of rice tocotrienols, plasma technology for improving rice phytochemicals, supercritical CO2 extraction of high quality rice bran oil, and an example on the development of tocotrienol-fortified foods.
Most natural lipids contain a complex mixture of individual triacylglycerols (TAGs). An in-depth knowledge of the mixing behavior of TAGs is necessary for the rational design and engineering of food materials. The binary phase diagram of TAGs is a simplified model that can be explored to help foster an understanding of the phase behavior of complex fats and oils. This article reviews recent research on the binary phase behavior of saturated-unsaturated mixed-acid TAGs, with special emphasis on the stearicunsaturated and palmitic-unsaturated diacid TAGs. The occurrence of polymorphic forms and mutual solubility of TAG mixtures are strongly related to the glycerol conformation of the saturated-oleic diacid TAGs; it appears to be most influenced by the chain-length mismatch in saturated-elaidic diacid TAGs. In addition, the polymorphism of pure enantiomers and racemic mixture of chiral TAGs was also reviewed, while the effect of chirality on mixing behavior was discussed.
This review discusses wet processes to synthesize metallic nanoparticles with many surface projections. Such projections can be formed by the aggregation of seed nanoparticles or by anisotropic crystal growth from specific facets on a base nanoparticle. The aggregation process can be controlled by protecting agents, which also play a key role in determining the morphology of the projections and the size of the nanoparticles. The reducing agents used for this purpose are mostly moderate and therefore allow seed aggregation before crystal growth. Some reducing agents act catalytically on specific crystal facets to promote anisotropic crystal growth. Branched nanostructures with high symmetry can be prepared from monocrystalline nanoparticles by site-selective growth and etching. The optical and plasmonic properties of the nanoparticles thus obtained can be used for various applications in surface-enhanced spectroscopy and in plasmon photocatalysts.
Saturated fats are commonly claimed to raise human blood cholesterols and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Previous literature data were highlighted that although palm oil is 50% saturated, it does not behave like a saturated fat. Human trials were conducted to compare the effects on serum cholesterol levels given by palm olein and monounsaturated oils. It was postulated that saturation/unsaturation of the fatty acids situated at sn-2 positions of triglycerides in the fat molecules determine the induced blood lipid levels but not the overall saturation of oils. The results showed that the lipid parameters (LDL and HDL) effects induced by these oils are similar with no significant differences. This study provides concrete evidence that the unsaturation levels of these oils at sn-2 position of TG are similar (90-100%) which are claimed to be responsible for the lipid parameters. In conclusion, the public negative perception on believing that the overall saturation of oils is detrimental to health should be corrected because in fact the unsaturation at sn-2 positions of the saturated vegetable fat such as palm olein and cocoa butter make them behave like mono-unsaturated oils, unlike saturated animal fats that possess a high content of saturated fatty acids at sn-2 position.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) markedly improved tetrahydrofuran (THF) – assisted methane hydrate formation. Firstly, methane hydrate formation with different THF amount, 1, 3, and 5.56 mol%, was studied. SDS with 1, 4, and 8 mM was then investigated for its roles on the methane hydrate formation with and without THF. The experiments were conducted in a quiescent condition in a fixed volume crystallizer at 8 MPa and 4°C. The results showed that almost all studied THF and SDS concentrations enhanced the methane hydrate formation kinetics and methane consumption compared to that without the promoters, except 1 mol% THF. Although, with 1 mol% THF, there were no hydrates formed for 48 hours, the addition of just 1 mM SDS surprisingly promoted the hydrate formation with a significant increased in the kinetics. This prompts the use of methane hydrate technology for natural gas storage application with minimal promoters.
The adsorption behavior of an Cu electroplating additive, 3,3 thiobis-(1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt) (TBPS) in a process of Cu deposition onto a single crystalline Au(111) surface is studied by an in-situ Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (SEIRAS). The SEIRAS spectra of the TBPS adlayer on a Cu film is investigated first and compared to that on an Au film. These results are utilized to evaluate the characteristics of TBPS adlayer on the electrode surface during the Cu deposition and stripping processes. The results show that the SEIRAS spectra of TBPS adsorbed on the Cu film resembles closely to that on the Au film, and the most pronounced peaks are symmetric S-O (ss-SO) and asymmetric S-O (as-SO) stretching modes. However, the as-SO band is sharper with a higher intensity on the Cu film. Since the ss-SO and as-SO peaks correspond to the molecular with upright and lie-down orientations, respectively, it implies that the TBPS molecules have higher ratio of lie-down orientation on the Cu film. In the Cu electrodeposition process, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) result shows that the presence of the TBPS in the HClO4 solution can decrease the inhibition effect of HClO4 to the Cu deposition. For the spectra measured at various potential during cathodic and anodic sweeping, an obvious change of the spectra occurs at ca. 0.6 V, the initiation of Cu underpotential deposition (Cu-UPD). For potentials higher and lower than 0.6 V, the spectra are similar, respectively, to those measured for the Au and Cu films. This result indicates that the TBPS molecules originally adsorbing on the Au film transfer to the surface of deposited Cu layer. This inference is also confirmed by the variation in wavenumber and peak intensity of ss-SO and as-SO peaks during the potential sweeping.
In this study, a pseudodouble-chained ion pair amphiphile (IPA), hexadecyltrimethylammoniumdodecylsulfate (HTMA-DS), and dialkyldimethylammonium bromide (DXDAB) with different chain lengths were used as the main materials to fabricate positively charged catanionic vesicles with various mole fractions of cholesterol. The effects of cholesterol and DXDAB alkyl chain length on physical stability of the catanionic vesicles were then investigated by size, zeta potential, and Fourier transform infrared analyses. With the presence of cholesterol in the mixed HTMA-DS/DXDAB vesicles or with increasing the DXDAB content in the presence of a proper amount of cholesterol, the physical stability of the catanionic vesicles could be enhanced. The spacing effect of cholesterol would reduce the counterion binding tendency at the charged vesicle surfaces, resulting in a more pronounced charge character of the catanionic vesicles. Furthermore, cholesterol-induced disordered structure contributed to the flexibility of the vesicular bilayers. Thus the physical stability of the vesicles was improved by adding cholesterol. With increasing the hydrocarbon chain length of DXDAB, cholesterol located toward the middle of the bilayers, enhancing the effects of cholesterol on charge and molecular packing characteristics of the vesicles. This led to a more pronounced stability enhancement effect on the vesicles with a longer alkyl chain length of DXDAB. The results suggested that the presence of cholesterol in the HTMA-DS/DXDAB catanionic vesicles could enhance vesicle stability through adjusting intra-vesicle and/or inter-vesicle interactions. In addition, the stability enhancement effect was more pronounced in the systems with a long DXDAB alkyl chain. The findings will be useful for developing new formulas of catanionic vesicles as drug delivery carriers.
The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to –40°C leads to the further formation of a βʹpolymorph. Upon heating, a of βʹ→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at –40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the βʹ polymorphic form until the temperature reached –40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.
An efficient method of ultrasound-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn germ oil was established, and its quality and antioxidant activity were studied. The optimum auxiliary extraction conditions with ultrasound were as follows: the ultrasonic treatment time was 20 minutes, and the ultrasonic temperature was 40°C. The corn germ oil extracted by the aqueous enzymatic method had better quality indexes in comparison with that exacted by the solvent. The fatty acid compositions of corn germ that was oil-extracted by two kinds of methods had almost no significant differences. The tea polyphenols (TP) exhibited remarkable antioxidant effects on corn germ oil during a storage stability test. Meanwhile, we focused on the antioxidant activity of corn germ oil, and the results showed that corn germ oil could effectively scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion free radicals. Thus, corn germ oil is a kind of functional oil with excellent antioxidant activity and could be used as a free radical scavenger in the food or other industries.
The changes in chemical properties of the peanut varieties (NC-7 and ÇOM) in the raw and roasted forms stored at 30°C for 8 months were monitored. Acidity and peroxide values of raw and roasted NC-7 and ÇOM kernel oils increased during storage. The unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic acids of roasted peanut oils gradually decreased during storage. While the oleic acid contents of raw NC-7 oil changed 46.14% (month 0) and 43.14% (month 8), the oleic acid contents of roasted NC-7 kernel oils varied between 42.38% (month 8) and 45.61% (month 0) during storage. In addition, while the oleic acid contents of raw ÇOM kernel oil decreased from 49.87% (month 0) to 46.09% (month 7), the oleic acid contents of roasted ÇOM kernel oil decreased from 48.88% (month 0) to 45.24% (month 8) during storage. The highest linoleic acid were found in the initial periods of storage for raw and roasted NC-7 and ÇOM oils. In addition, the α-tocopherol contents of both raw and roasted peanut kernel oils changed between 20.38 mg/100 g (0.month) and 17.58 mg/100 g (month 8) to 21.45 mg/100g (month 0) and 18.64 mg/100 g (month 8) during storage, respectively. Significant variations were observed in tocopherol contents of peanut varieties due to processing.
We investigated the hydration behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers containing sodium β-sitosteryl sulfate (PSO4). PSO4 was found to enhance hydration in the headgroup region of DPPC bilayers. Therefore, with the incorporation of PSO4 into DPPC membranes, the amount of water required to reach the fully hydrated state was enhanced as indicated by the constant values of the main phase transition temperature (Tm) and the bilayer repeat distance (d). For example, with the addition of 20 mol% of PSO4, the saturation point was shifted to ~70 wt% water compared to ~40 wt% for pure DPPC and 47 wt% for DPPC-cholesterol. The effectiveness of PSO4 in fluidizing the membrane and enhancing its hydration state can be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
A facile method for synthesizing allyl propargyl ethers (APEs) was developed based on the dimerization of propargyl alcohols. The reaction proceeded via an oxaphosphetane intermediate, which was generated without the use of a strong base, thus making this process a pseudo-Wittig reaction under mild reaction conditions. A wide variety of functional groups, including formyl and pyridyl groups were tolerated, thus yielding the corresponding functionalized APEs, which are otherwise not readily prepared via conventional methods. Moreover, a cross-reaction was found to occur when the reaction was conducted in the presence of alcohols that were more acidic than propargyl alcohol, which suggests that the proton transfer from the intermediately formed betaine to the second alcohol is crucial for undergoing the dimerization.
Dried flower buds of Magnolia biondii Pamp. are the main ingredient in “Xin-yi” in China, and the volatile oils of M. biondii flower buds are the principal medicinal component. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC–MS) and microscopic techniques were employed to detect the volatile yields of M. biondii flowers at various growth stages. The volatile oil yields of M. biondii flowers differed significantly at different growth stages and were closely related to flower dry weight, oil cell density and degree of oil accumulation. In February 2016, flower buds had the highest dry weight, the maximum percentage of oil cells at the oil saturation stage and the highest density of oil cells, which coincided with the highest oil yield. In March 2016, flower buds had a lower dry weight, a higher percentage of oil cells at the oil-degrading stage and the lowest oil cell density, resulting in decreased oil yields. The total amounts of the major medicinal components in the M. biondii flower also showed regular changes at different growth stages. In January and February of 2016, M. biondii flowers had a higher dry weight, volatile oil yield and total content of medicinal ingredients, which was the best time for harvesting high-quality medicinal components. Our study reveals that volatile oil content and chemical composition are closely related to the growth stage of M. biondii flower buds. The results provide a scientific morphology and composition index for evaluating the medicinal value and harvesting of high-quality M. biondii medicinal herbs.