We have previously suggested that gluten binds with decomposition products from thermally oxidized oil during frying, and that low-molecular-weight compounds bound to browned gluten damage the liver in rats. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were fed for 11 weeks ad libitum a diet containing 7 wt% fresh frying oil and 0.1 wt% gluten heated in/without oil at 180°C for 10 h. Feces collected weekly and serum were subjected to lipid and hematological analyses, respectively. Values obtained in the analyses did not differ from those of the control group. The results show that thermally processed gluten does not influence the digestion, absorption, metabolism, and growth of rats, regardless of the cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds, and that ingested fresh oil was assimilated normally. Together with the previous results, the odor of thermally processed gluten stimulated the rats’ appetite, and completely assimilable fresh oil and cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds bound to gluten were ingested, and thus organ damage and rapid body weight increase were observed. As commercial deep-fried products are often made with repeatedly used oil with periodically added fresh oil, similar to the present experimental diet, obesity and organ damage may also occur in humans.
The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds from India were determined in the present study. The petroleum ether extracted oil ranged from 27.83 - 45.07% on kernel basis and 15.1-28.4% on whole seed basis in 20 different clones. Leaves and pods showed a good source of vitamin C. Oleic acid (C18:1) has been found to be the major fatty acid being 78.91-85.52% as compared to olive oil, which is considered to be richest source of oleic acid. All the clones from India did not show any presence of behenic acid (C 22:0). The oil was also found to contain high levels of β-sitosterol ranged from 42.29-47.94% stigmasterol from 13.66-16.61%, campesterol from 12.53-16.63%. The γ- and δ-tocopherol were found to be in the range of 128.0-146.95, 51.88-63.5 and 55.23-63.84 mg/kg, respectively.
A facile method is described for the detection of volatile odor components from oxidized lipids. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of the compounds in the vial head space and the subsequent analysis of the volatiles by gas chromatography (GC) using a septum-free sample injector. The extraction was done using a 85 μm carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) SPME fiber and the volatiles were desorbed onto a GC instrument with the septum-free injection port. The septum free injector made it possible to analyze the samples without using a conventional silicone rubber septum, that is easily damaged by the repetitive stubs of a relatively thick blunt needle into the septum and a long desorption time after injection. The method was standardized with authentic C3-C10 aldehydes and was applied to the detection of aldehyde components from oxidized fish oil. Several volatiles, including propanal and hexanal, were clearly separated on a polar capillary column (60 m) with reproducible retention times. The present study demonstrates that the method using the GC septum-free injector and the HS-SPME fiber would be useful for the determination of volatile components derived from edible oils.
Total carbonyl compounds in oils extracted from roasted and dried foods were estimated by the tentative method using 1-butanol instead of benzene as a solvent. Oils extracted from dried foods had generally showed higher carbonyl value (CV) than those from roasted foods. The CV estimated by the tentative method had a good correlation with that by the conventional method in oils extracted from roasted and dried foods, although the former did not always correlate with the latter for roasted and dried foods. It was expected that the tentative method using 1-butanol could be substituted for that using benzene and be useful for evaluating the quality of oils in roasted and dried foods.
Previous studies have reported that O/W emulsion prepared using a surfactant with phytosterol as the hydrophobic moiety exhibited unique morphology; a lamellar structure was present on the surface of the emulsified particles. It is suggested that such a unique self-organized structure was due to the large and bulky planar structure of the sterol. On the other hand, sparingly soluble compounds including ultraviolet ray absorbers and medicines (e.g., indomethacine and finasteride) have been used after they are dissolved mainly in polar oils. However, it is very difficult to dissolve them in bases that contain small amounts of oil components such as lotions. Moreover, many of these sparingly soluble compounds have planar structures such as aromatic rings and are easy to crystallize in polar oil. In this study, sterol surfactants were considered suitable for solubilizing sparingly soluble compounds, since they have a bulky planar structure in their molecules. On this basis, the solubilization of ultraviolet ray absorbers using sterol surfactants was investigated. Methods to solubilize ultraviolet ray absorbers stably and effectively by using a surfactant that had a phytosterol structure have been clarified. Further, the following features were also suggested: (1) the microemulsion of phytosterol surfactant is different from that of other surfactants and (2) a rigid core that has solubilized compounds between the hydrophobic moieties was considered; further, the core was surrounded by a polyoxyethylene chain that prevented the self-aggregation. Analysis using NMR measurements suggested that (1) the polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene random copolymer dimethyl ether squeezed in a narrow gap between the hydrophobic moieties of the surfactant, and (2) this eventually increased the solubilized amount of an ultraviolet ray absorber.
Oxidative cleavage of carbon-carbon double bonds of cyclic olefins with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of heteropolyacids has been investigated as a clean and environmentally friendly preparation of polycarboxylic acids. In the presence of 12-tungstophospholic acid (H3PW12O40), adipic acid was obtained in 95% yield from cyclohexene in lipophilic phase and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous phase. In addition, 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid was also obtained in 87% yield from 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophtharic acid anhydride, while endic acid anhydride did not afford corresponding 2,3,6-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid but only lactone compound was obtained. In this oxidation process, oxidative cleavage of carbon-carbon double bonds would proceed as the sequential reactions in which the rate determining step is oxidative cleavage of vicinal-diol compounds.
The adsorption of various kinds of ionic/nonionic actives, added in ophthalmological drugs (artificial tear, contact lens wetting solution, eye-drops, and eyewash) for over-the-counter (marketable drugs with no need of any medical prescription) , on soft contact lens (SCL) surfaces has been studied as a function of hydrophobicity of the actives. The common logarithm of the 1-octanol/water partitioning coefficient (AC_log P) has been used in order to normalize the hydrophobicity of the actives employed in this study. No significant adsorption occurs for relatively hydrophilic actives, whereas the adsorption rate is gradually increased with an increase in the hydrophobicity of the actives. This suggests that the adsorption is predominantly governed by the hydrophobic interaction of the actives with the SCL surfaces, although an electrostatic interaction plays an additional role for the adsorption. The most effective adsorption occurs in the following active-lens combinations: cationic actives-the anionic and hydrated lens IV (methacrylic acid-based SCL); anionic actives-the nonionic and hydrated lens II (N-vinyl pyrrolidone-based SCL); and nonionic actives-the anionic and less-hydrated lens III (containing hydrophobic silicone monomers).