The lipid content and class composition of the digestive gland, mantle and stomach fluid of the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus collected in the North Pacific are described. The digestive glands contained large amounts of lipids (20.0-35.6%), which comprised mainly triacylglycerols (TAG: 57.1-77.3%) and diacyl glyceryl ethers (DAGE: 12.9-14.6%). The mantles contained the least amounts of lipids (1.3-1.4%), which comprised phospholipids (76.2-79.4%), TAG (0.1%) and trace amounts of DAGE. The stomach fluids contained low amounts of lipids (4.5%), which comprised wax esters (75.2%), TAG (4.7%) and DAGE (0.9%). The main components of the alkyl chains in DAGE from the digestive glands were 16:0 (50.7-57.3%), 20:1n-11 (6.2-8.0%), 16:1n-7 (3.7-7.1%) and 18:0 (2.8-7.9%) alcohols. Component fatty alcohols originating in wax esters from the stomach fluids were rich in monoenes (90.9%), including 22:1n-11 (45.3%) and 20:1n-11 (15.3%) alcohols. The fatty acid compositions of DAGE and TAG in the digestive glands, of phospholipids in the mantles, and of wax esters and TAG in the stomach fluids are also discussed.
Soybean-germ oil was extracted from hypocotyle enriched raw soybean and was found to contain 4 times as much plant sterol as soybean oil. Its capacity for cholesterol-lowering effects in humans was evaluated using a double-blind, controlled protocol. Forty-nine healthy male volunteers, average age 45 (SD11), with serum total cholesterol (TC) below 260 mg/dl, consumed test food everyday for 12 weeks. The test food was mayonnaise containing 11 g cooking oil. The test groups were i) 11 g Soybean-germ oil and ii) 11 g safflower oil group (Control group). In the sub-group of subjects with initial TC above 220 mg/day, serum TC in Soybean-germ oil group decreased significantly (4wk: p < 0.01, 8wk: p < 0.05) and it was lower than that in the Control group throughout the test period. This effect may be mainly due to the inhibiting cholesterol absorption of plant sterols contained in Soybean-germ oil. These results suggest that daily intake of Soybean-germ oil can be effective for maintaining normal serum cholesterol level in humans.
For examination of the title parameters, study was made in which forty healthy male subjects (serum cholesterol concentration 170-309 mg/dL) were fed 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg/day of free plant sterol supplemented in mayonnaise for 4 consecutive weeks. Only the 800 mg/day group significantly reduced serum cholesterol by the paired t-test (Exp.1). Thirty-two healthy males (serum cholesterol, 184-285 mg/dL) were made to consume plant sterol as ester at 0, 800, 1600, or 2400 mg/day. In all cases at more than 800 mg/day reduction in serum cholesterol was noted though without significant difference with paired t-test results (Exp.2). Subsequent to the mayonnaise consumption, normal diets were resumed for a period of 4 weeks. Total cholesterol showed original values at the end of this period. Plant sterol is thus shown to be a dietary component capable of reducing cholesterol by these results. Fifteen healthy subjects (males 10, females 5) were made to consume free plant sterol supplemented in mayonnaise at 2400 mg/day for 4 consecutive weeks. No change in serum vitamin A or vitamin E levels was observed at 2400 mg consumption. At 2400 mg, a significant increase in serum β-sitosterol was noted though it was markedly less than β-sitosterolemia. Clinical trial results, in all cases, were normal (Exp.3). The minimal effective dose of plant sterol on serum cholesterol concentration would thus appear to be 800 mg/day. At 2400 mg/day in mayonnaise, physiological and biochemical safety markers in serum would not undergo abnormal change.
Glycerol residue, a by-product of glycerol refining from a palm kernel oil methyl ester plant, was found to be a good source of glycerol and medium chain fatty acids. From analyses of twelve samples, it was found to contain, on average, 20.2 % glycerol and 6.6 % fatty acids. The fatty acids comprised mainly C8:0 (30.3 %), C10:0 (9.4 %) and C12:0 (40.8 %).
The aqueous phase behavior of poly(oxyethylene) alkyl ethers (CmEOn) having both ultra-long hydrophobic and hydrophilic chains (m =30 and n =94 and 42) was investigated. The HLB values of C30EO94 and C30EO42 are 18 and 16, respectively. In C30EO94 system, micellar solution phase (Wm), micellar cubic (I1), hexagonal (H1) and solid surfactant phases (S) are successively formed. The same sequence is observed for C30EO42 system, but the I1 phase shrinks and the H1 phase prevails over a wide range of composition. This phase sequence was compared to that of conventional poly(oxyethylene) surfactants and it was found that the surfactant layer curvature of aggregates becomes less positive in a long hydrocarbon-chain surfactant system even if the HLB values are the same.
The core lipid compositions of the strains of the genus Pyrococcus (3 strains), Thermococcus (13 strains) and Palaeococcus (1 strain) belonging to the Order Thermococcales, Euryarchaeota were examined. In the 85°C culture, the main core lipid of every strain was caldarchaeol (dibiphytanyldiglycerol tetraether). No cyclopentane rings were detected in the C40 isoprenoid chains of caldarchaeol from any of the tested strains. Archaeol (diphytanylglycerol diether) was also detected in these strains, and the contents were 5.9% to 42.1% for the total core lipids. The H-type caldarchaeol in which two isoprenoid chains were linked to each other by a covalent bond around the center of both isoprenoid chains was detected in 4 strains, with no relationship to the classification of the genera. The profile of the core lipids in these strains showed that the core lipid composition of Thermococcales is close to that of the thermophilic methanogen in Euryarchaeota.
This paper reports the total lipid content, lipid class composition, and fatty acid composition of the krill Euphausia pacifica collected in the northwestern Pacific Ocean near Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. The krill were caught in spring, summer, and winter in three consecutive years, 2000-2002. Lipid content of the E. pacifica samples was ranged from 5.1 to 11.6% on the basis of dry weight. Major lipid classes determined for the samples of 2002 were triacylglycerols (TAG) (3.4-27.3%), free fatty acids (FFA) (6.9-22.2%), sterols (5.4-12.9%), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) (3.4-17.5%), and phosphatidylcholines (PC) (36.2-53.8%). All of the samples subjected to fatty acid analysis were high in 16:0 (19.0-24.5% of total fatty acids), 18:1n-9 (7.5-10.0%), 18:1n-7 (6.3-8.1%), 20:5n-3 (IPA) (15.3-24.7%), and 22:6n-3 (DHA) (8.4-20.7%). The lipids of E. pacifica were found to be generally rich in PC and in IPA and DHA. Lipid content and proportion of TAG were higher in the spring samples than in the summer samples. The summer samples were higher in the concentration of DHA in total fatty acids.